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Clarification Needed EVALUATION IN NURSING EDUCATION—AN OVERVIEW Elizabeth S. Markham, PhD, RN OUTCOMES By the end of this overview, the stude

Clarification Needed EVALUATION IN NURSING EDUCATION—AN OVERVIEW
Elizabeth S. Markham, PhD, RN

OUTCOMES
By the end of this overview, the stude

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Clarification Needed EVALUATION IN NURSING EDUCATION—AN OVERVIEW
Elizabeth S. Markham, PhD, RN

OUTCOMES
By the end of this overview, the student will be able to identify key concepts important to the nurse educator.
Explore additional relevant information that related to program evaluation.

INTRODUCTION
The focus of Module 4:
different methodologies available to either determine student achievement or evaluate programs.
Differentiate between assessment and evaluation
Assessment: evaluates stepwise progression
Evaluation: determines end of program (or course ) success

Difference Between Formative and Summative Evaluation
Formative Evaluation:
quick feedback at intermediate points;
provides information allowing time to reteach, correct, change your teaching methods
Think ongoing monitoring of student performance (can also be program performance_
Summative Evaluation:
think “end” (end of course, end of program)
overall evaluation of a program, course
Measures of effectiveness; may be targeted; may be “high stakes”

Nursing Program Evaluation
Ongoing, systematic process
Both qualitative and quantitative
Involves self-study and external review with 3 approaches typically used together to give the best overview of status and guide improvement:
Objective: approach: Look at goals, objectives, outcomes, courses and lessons
Research orientation: statistical data (Usually found in Outcomes standards)
Constructivist orientation: evaluates if program meets the values of stakeholders, evaluates methods; evaluated design of the program

Program Evaluation continued
Agencies that Evaluate Nursing Programs
Accrediting bodies evaluate, essentially, the same outcomes. Their standards appear in different orders with different numbers of standards. See links provided for your review on slide 7.
Board of Nursing grants approvals to operate and continue operation (assures basics are in place and they meet statutes and rules). Approves PN BSN most consistent across country; also licenses advanced practice nurses; some states approve RN-BSN completion programs. Associated with licensure of graduates, NCLEX, and licensure after certification.
U.S. Department of Education (USDE) and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) Recognized Nursing Accreditors
ACEN (Accreditation Commission for Education in Nursing): oldest nursing accrediting body.
Earliest activity 1893 as the American Society of Superintendents of Training School for Nurses (became NLN);
1917 NLN published first curriculum standards
1937 Published a Curriculum Guide for Schools of Nursing
1939 NLN initiated accreditation; 1949-NNAS formed to unify accreditation; 1952 USDE recognize NLN (later NLNAC and then ACEN.
Accredits : Clinical Doctorate/DNP specialist certificate, master’s/post master’s certificates, baccalaureate, associate, diploma, and practical nursing programs.; and are Title IV-HEA Gatekeepers.

Program Evaluation continued

U.S. Department of Education (USDE) and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) Recognized Nursing Accreditors continued:

Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE)—1998:
CCNE accredits baccalaureate and master’s degree programs in nursing, Doctor of Nursing Practice programs, post-graduate advanced practice registered nurse certificate programs, and entry-to-practice nurse residency programs. CCNE is launching an initiative to accredit nurse practitioner residency/fellowship programs. CCNE is launching an initiative to accredit nurse practitioner residency/fellowship programs

National League for Nursing Commission for Nursing Education Accreditation (NLN CNEA) Note: U.S. Department of Education designated Category 2, non-Title IV, accrediting body.
Founded in 2013
The NLN CNEA will accredit nursing programs across the academic spectrum including LPN/LVN, diploma, associate, bachelor, master’s, and clinical doctorate degree programs, as a U.S. Department of Education designated Category 2, non-Title IV, accrediting body.

Links to Accreditation Information:

For Programs

https://www.aacnnursing.org/CCNE-Accreditation/Accreditation-Resources/Standards-Procedures-Guidelines

http://www.nln.org/accreditation-services/standards-for-accreditation

TEACHING STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES (Billings and Halstead (2014), Chapter 4
Key Points Important to the Nurse Educator
Students with disabilities can meet the qualifications for admission to nursing programs.
Determine reasonable accommodations that can be made
Know ADA laws
Review the curriculum to teach the essentials not the traditional.
Define nursing requirements in writing to assure fairness/openness for potential students.
Work with community agencies to assure placement opportunities for required clinical experiences
Assure campus support services
Comprehend, explore, and apply observations, support opportunities, and instructional techniques to promote successful student outcomes.
Faculty must search their own biases and assure “culturally” sensitive actions.

PLANNING, TEACHING, ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION IN COURSES AND PROGRAMS
KEY POINTS

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
THINGS TO REMEMBER ABOUT TEACHING
The instructor my know the content /specialty area in which they are teaching.
Teachers must be able to apply learning theory (determinants of learning).
Must create a receptive, culturally sensitive learning environment
Assessment of Learning Needs is essential
Use theory related to learning styles as well as alternate theory related to how persons process information
Design appropriate content matched/learner matched courses, instructional materials, and methodologies.
Design and implement appropriate assessment strategies to measure learner, course, and program outcomes.

On Learning Outcomes Assessment
Student Evaluation of Attainment in Courses
Design courses with measurable outcomes that are matched to programmatic philosophy and student learning outcomes and professional standards and expectations.
When designing assessments, assure you have identified the purpose of the assessment and when you need to evaluation. Think about these considerations:
Is the evaluation formative or summative?
At what frequency should you evaluate?
Is it theory or clinical evaluation?
Consider the variety of strategies available to you and choose wisely based on content, your instruction, and the learner. Billings and Halstead (2014) have a wonderful summary table of suggested outcome measures in Table 21-1 of Chapter 24.
Consider the purpose of the evaluation and if the test will be criterion or norm referenced
Know that for assessments, it needs to be both valid and reliable.
if it is an exam, you need to do due diligence to design it well. In an exam you will use a table of specifications, map, or blueprint; apply concepts from Bloom, Gagne to appropriately “level” the questions and other item types that you use, while matching it to the content/standards identified.
Clinical Assessments and Tools are designed to measure both psychomotor, cognitive, and affective domains and are also matched to the standards.

On Learning Outcomes Assessment continued
Analysis of Student Assessments:
Determine both validity and reliability of your tests. You will need to learn to use and interpret key statistics.
The most common statistics used follow. Yes there are others. Most schools provide programs to assist you with identifying the statistics for your exams but you are responsible for interpretation, adjusts (such as discarding a question), review and reteaching contents.
Kuder-Richardson (tests reliability): range 0-1, .60-.77 represent strong internal consistency.
Item Difficulty Index
Item Discrimination Index
Range: high to low grades
Mean:
Standard Deviation (SD)
Record your decisions and finding on a Test Analysis Form and retain. Can use this analysis to help develop your own test bank of quality questions versus using the authors test banks which may or may not have been updated and often available to students on the internet.

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