Computer and Information Networking Please answer these questions : (No plagiarism ) 1. Explain the layers of the OSI, TCP/IP, and the Internet mode

Computer and Information Networking Please answer these questions : (No plagiarism )

1. Explain the layers of the OSI, TCP/IP, and the Internet mode

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Computer and Information Networking Please answer these questions : (No plagiarism )

1. Explain the layers of the OSI, TCP/IP, and the Internet models in detail, and elaborate on their similarities and differences.

2. Explain the concept of Capsulation/De-capsulation.

3. Explain TCP and UDP, their differences, and their applications. Which one is better and why?

4. Explain in detail the hub, active hub, switch, and routers, and their purposes, similarities, or differences.

5. List and explain guided and unguided mediums and give a couple of examples of each.

6. Explain the difference between wire and fiber optic and list the advantages and disadvantages of each one in detail. 

7. Assume that you have a wired network. Explain how you would covert this system to a fiber optic system.

8. A RF amplifier has a power gain of 30 dB. How many times does this amplifier amplify the incoming signal? Show your calculations step-by-step.

9. Explain how analog signals are converted into digital.

10. Explain how wireless networks work. Network Design
Analyzing Business Goals and Constraints


Top-Down Network Design
Network design should be a complete process that matches business needs to available technology to deliver a system that will maximize an organization’s success.
In the LAN area it is more than just buying a few devices.
In the WAN area it is more than just calling the phone company.

Start at the Top
Don’t just start connecting the dots.
Analyze business and technical goals first.
Explore divisional and group structures to find out who the network serves and where they reside.
Determine what applications will run on the network and how those applications behave on a network.
Focus on Layer 7 and above first.

Layer 8 of the OSI model encompasses office politics, budgets, training, and other human factors.

Layers of the OSI Model

Data Link
Layer 1
Layer 7
Layer 6
Layer 5
Layer 4
Layer 3
Layer 2

Structured Design
A focus is placed on understanding data flow, data types, and processes that access or change the data.
A focus is placed on understanding the location and needs of user communities that access or change data and processes.
Several techniques and models can be used to characterize the existing system, new user requirements, and a structure for the future system.
A logical model is developed before the physical model.
The logical model represents the basic building blocks, divided by function, and the structure of the system.
The physical model represents devices and specific technologies and implementations.

Systems Development Life Cycles
SDLC: Does it mean Synchronous Data Link Control or Systems Development Life Cycle?
The latter for the purposes of this class!
Typical systems are developed and continue to exist over a period of time, often called a systems development life cycle (SDLC).

Analyze requirements

Develop logical design
Develop physical design
Test, optimize, and document design
Monitor and optimize network performance
Implement and test network
Top-Down Network Design Steps

Network Design Steps
Phase 1 – Analyze Requirements
Analyze business goals and constraints
Analyze technical goals and tradeoffs
Characterize the existing network
Characterize network traffic

Network Design Steps
Phase 2 – Logical Network Design
Design a network topology
Design models for addressing and naming
Select switching and routing protocols
Develop network security strategies
Develop network management strategies

Network Design Steps
Phase 3 – Physical Network Design
Select technologies and devices for campus networks
Select technologies and devices for enterprise networks

Network Design Steps
Phase 4 – Testing, Optimizing, and Documenting the Network Design
Test the network design
Optimize the network design
Document the network design

The PDIOO Network Life Cycle


Business Goals
Increase revenue
Reduce operating costs
Improve communications
Shorten product development cycle
Expand into worldwide markets
Build partnerships with other companies
Offer better customer support or new customer services

Recent Business Priorities
Resiliency (fault tolerance)
Business continuity after a disaster
Network projects must be prioritized based on fiscal goals
Networks must offer the low delay required for real-time applications such as VoIP

Resiliency means how much stress a network can handle and how quickly the network can rebound from problems, including security breaches, natural and unnatural disasters, human error, and catastrophic software or hardware failures.
Some experts, including Howard Berkowitz, have a mild dislike of the word “resiliency” as it sounds too much like a stretched rubber band or a trampoline. As Berkowitz says in his excellent book, WAN Survival Guide (Wiley 2001), “I avoid designing networks that stretch too far, bounce up and down, or oscillate between normal and backup states.”
So he likes “fault tolerance,” but he points out that it does not mean “immune to any conceivable threat.” Berkowitz states that, “A sufficient quantity of explosives can overcome the tolerance of any network.” 🙂

Business Constraints
Politics and policies

Collect Information Before the First Meeting
Before meeting with the client, whether internal or external, collect some basic business-related information
Such as
Products produced/Services supplied
Financial viability
Customers, suppliers, competitors
Competitive advantage

Meet With the Customer
Try to get
A concise statement of the goals of the project
What problem are they trying to solve?
How will new technology help them be more successful in their business?
What must happen for the project to succeed?

Meet With the Customer
What will happen if the project is a failure?
Is this a critical business function?
Is this project visible to upper management?
Who’s on your side?

Meet With the Customer
Discover any biases
For example
Will they only use certain company’s products?
Do they avoid certain technologies?
Do the data people look down on the voice people or vice versa?
Talk to the technical and management staff

Meet With the Customer
Get a copy of the organization chart
This will show the general structure of the organization
It will suggest users to account for
It will suggest geographical locations to account for

Meet With the Customer
Get a copy of the security policy
How does the policy affect the new design?
How does the new design affect the policy?
Is the policy so strict that you (the network designer) won’t be able to do your job?
Start cataloging network assets that security should protect
Hardware, software, applications, and data
Less obvious, but still important, intellectual property, trade secrets, and a company’s reputation

The Scope of the Design Project
Small in scope?
Allow sales people to access network via a VPN
Large in scope?
An entire redesign of an enterprise network
Use the OSI model to clarify the scope
New financial reporting application versus new routing protocol versus new data link (wireless, for example)
Does the scope fit the budget, capabilities of staff and consultants, schedule?

Gather More Detailed Information
Now and after the project is completed
Include both productivity applications and system management applications
User communities
Data stores
Current logical and physical architecture
Current performance

User communities, data stores, protocols, and the current architecture and performance will be discussed in the next few chapters. This chapter focuses on business needs and applications, which should be the first area of research in a top-down network design project. Network design is iterative, however, so many topics are addressed more than once as the designer gathers more detailed information and conducts more precise planning. So, gaining a general understanding of the size and location of user communities, for example, might be appropriate at this stage of the design project, but user communities should be investigated again when characterizing network traffic.

Network Applications

Name of Application
Type of Application
New Application?


Systematic approach
Focus first on business requirements and constraints, and applications
Gain an understanding of the customer’s corporate structure
Gain an understanding of the customer’s business style

Review Questions
What are the main phases of network design per the top-down network design approach?
What are the main phases of network design per the PDIOO approach?
Why is it important to understand your customer’s business style?
What are some typical business goals for organizations today?

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