constitutional law APA 7th Edition The most notable changes These lecture slides are based on Scribbr’s Knowledge Base article APA Manual 7th edition:

constitutional law APA 7th Edition
The most notable changes

These lecture slides are based on Scribbr’s Knowledge Base article APA Manual 7th edition:

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APA 7th Edition

The most notable changes

These lecture slides are based on Scribbr’s Knowledge Base article APA Manual 7th edition: The most notable changes, which can be found here: https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/apa-seventh-edition-changes/

What’s changed?

Better guidelines for citing online media

Updated guidelines for inclusive and bias-free language

Student-specific paper format

Minor changes in how to cite sources

References and
in-text citations

7 notable changes

When it comes to citing sources, more guidelines have been added that make citing online sources easier and clearer.

.

Publisher location not included

Covey, S. R. (2013). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Covey, S. R. (2013). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. Simon & Schuster.

2. In-text citations are shortened

(Taylor, Kotler, Johnson, & Parker, 2018)

(Taylor et al., 2018)

The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is now shortened right from the first citation. You only include the first author’s name and “et al.” (meaning “and others”).

APA citations consist of two parts:

In-text citation: brief citation included in the sentence where the information is used. The in-text citation only contains the author’s last name and year of publication, e.g. (Smith, 2019). It identifies and helps locate the full source in the reference list.

Reference list entry: full publication details listed alphabetically on the reference page, which appears right after the main body. The reference provides all information that is required to find the source, e.g. Smith, P. (2019, April 18). Citing Sources in APA Format. Retrieved April 21, 2019, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/

APA in-text citations

An in-text citation is a concise way to show the reader where the original idea came from and to give credit to the original author.

According to the APA citation guidelines, you should write down the last name of the author(s) and the year of publication. When quoting a source it is also required to include the page number(s). This can be done in multiple ways:

An earlier study in which X and Y were compared revealed that … (Smith, 2017).

Smith (2017) shows how, in the past, research into X was mainly concerned with …

In 2017, research was carried out by Smith that indicated that …

APA in-text citations consist of

The author’s last name, publication year and, if applicable, page numbers. Page numbers are required when quoting and encouraged when paraphrasing.

Omit page numbers when referring to a source as a whole.

In-text citations can be included in multiple ways:

The author claims that “plagiarism is becoming a bigger problem” (Smith, 2014, p. 170).

Smith states that plagiarism is becoming increasingly widespread (2014, p. 170).

As Smith (2014) has shown, plagiarism is a serious issue for universities.

In text citations

No page numbers

When quoting a source that has no pages or page numbers, you can include a chapter or paragraph number instead.

If the source uses headings, cite the heading and the paragraph number following it. Long headings may be shortened, but then they should be enclosed in quotation marks.

(Johnson, 2019, Chapter 3)

(McCombes, 2016, para. 4)

(Smith, 2014, Conclusion, para. 2)

(Streefkerk, 2019, “No Page Numbers,” para. 2)

Reference

Reference different

From in text citations

3. Up to 20 authors in the reference list

Miller, T. C., Brown, M. J., Wilson, G. L., Evans, B. B., Kelly, R. S., Turner, S. T., … Nelson, T. P. (2018).

Miller, T. C., Brown, M. J., Wilson, G. L., Evans, B. B., Kelly, R. S., Turner, S. T., Lewis, F., Lee, L. H., Cox, G., Harris, H. L., Martin, P., Gonzalez, W. L., Hughes, W., Carter, D., Campbell, C., Baker, A. B., Flores, T., Gray, W. E., Green, G., … Nelson, T. P. (2018).

Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors (instead of 7) should be provided in the reference list.

If a source is authored by more than 20 authors, only the first 19 authors and the last author are included. In between the 19th and last author you place an ellipses to indicate names are omitted.

4. DOIs are formatted as URLs

doi: 10.1080/02626667.2018.1560449

https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2018.1560449

Most journal articles and books have a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) assigned to them. This unique link is stable (it doesn’t change over time) and makes retrieving a source easier for readers.

DOIs are formatted the same as URLs. The label “DOI:” is no longer used.

5. Citing web pages

Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127

Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127

URLs are no longer preceded by “Retrieved from,” unless a retrieval date is needed (e.g. for Wikipedia articles where content frequently changes).

The website name is included (unless it’s the same as the author).

Web page titles are italicized.

6. Citing ebooks

Brück, M. (2009). Women in early British and Irish astronomy: Stars and satellites [Kindle version]. doi: 10.1007/978-90-481-2473-2

Brück, M. (2009). Women in early British and Irish astronomy: Stars and satellites. Springer Nature. https:/doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2473-2

For ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g. Kindle) is no longer included in the reference.

The publisher is included in the reference.

The DOI is formatted according to the new 7th edition guidelines.

Inclusive and
bias-free language

Updated guidelines

Writing inclusively and without bias is the new standard, and APA’s new publication manual contains a separate chapter on this topic.

The guidelines provided by APA help authors reduce bias around topics such as gender, age, disability, racial and ethnic identity, and sexual orientation, as well as being sensitive to labels and describing individuals at the appropriate level of specificity.

Use singular “they”

A researcher’s career depends on how often he is cited.

A researcher’s career depends on how often they are cited.

Each examiner submitted his or her assessment.

Each examiner submitted their assessment.

The singular “they” or “their” is endorsed as a gender-neutral pronoun. Avoid using “he or she” to refer to people of unspecified gender.

Be sensitive to labels

The poor

People living in poverty

Transsexuals

Transgender people

Instead of using adjectives as nouns to label groups of people, descriptive phrases are generally preferred. Respect the language that people use to describe themselves and be aware that language changes over time.

Appropriate level of specificity

Over-65s

People aged 65 to 75

Asian participants

Vietnamese, Cambodian, and Thai participants

When possible, give specific characteristics rather than broad categories. The appropriate choice depends on context.

Paper format

Student-specific guidelines

In the 7th edition, APA decided to provide separate format guidelines for professional and student papers. For both types a sample paper is included. Some notable changes for student papers follow in the next three slides.

More fonts to choose from

Only use what your instructor requires if not specified you can choose.

Times New Roman (12 pt)

Arial (11pt)

Georgia (11pt)

Calibri (11pt)

Lucida Sans Unicode (10pt)

In the 6th edition, only the use of Times New Roman was recommended. In the 7th edition there is more flexibility regarding fonts.

The most important things is that the font should be easy to read for everyone.

No more running head

In student papers, a running head (stating the paper title at the top of every page) is no longer required.

Questions to answer

The author’s last name, publication year and, if applicable, page numbers. Page numbers are required when quoting and encouraged when ____________________.

___________________ is a brief citation included in the sentence where the information is used.

The in-text citation only contains the____________ and ______. It identifies and helps locate the full source in the reference list.

full publication details listed alphabetically is called the _____________

According to the APA citation guidelines, you should write down the last name of the author(s) and the year of publication. When is it also required to include the page number(s)._____________________

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