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Data and System Security Read chapter 13 of your textbook (lecture slides under week 5), and review online library and reputable      articles/journals/onl

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Data and System Security Read chapter 13 of your textbook (lecture slides under week 5), and review online library and reputable      articles/journals/online resources and write 3/4 page paper and discuss:

Q). How do you design a secure network. Discuss latest technologies to keep your network secure. 1

INST569: Data and System Security Lecture 5

Copyright © 2013 University of North America. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2013 University of North America. All rights reserved.

Key Terms and Concepts: Application & Systems Development

Life Cycle Development Methodologies

Security Engineering Processes

Change Management/control

Build Management/control

Release Management/control

Capability Maturity Model (CMM)

Application Controls

Application Control Types

Security Control Architecture

Implementation/Operation Controls

Distributed Computing Environment (DCE)

Distributed Environment Security Mechanisms

Development languages

Database systems – types

Object-oriented databases

Relational Databases

Data Dictionaries

Data Warehouses

Artificial Intelligence

Expert Systems

Neural Networks

Application-related Threats

Attacks Methods

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Application & Systems Development Domain

Development Life Cycle/Process

Change Control/Configuration Management

Application Controls

Application environments/languages

Applications – Databases, Data Warehouse, AI Systems,

Threats and Attacks

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Applications and System Development Security – Overview

Addresses security as it relates to

The development process

The software/system being developed

The type of software/system being deployed

Provides the fundamentals required for an organization to be Proactive rather than Reactive when addressing Application Security

Reduces the risk of loss due to security vulnerabilities of applications deployed by an organization – that can actually be controlled by the organization

Many of the concepts presented in this domain are similar to those touted by TQM – Total Quality Management and have been adopted in many organizations at some level. Very few, however, have used those same concepts to explicitly address security to the level discussed in this domain (Until recently, the business drivers that now make it a priority did not exist for most industries).

Copyright © 2013 University of North America. All rights reserved.

The world according to (ISC)2

Application & Systems Development Security refers to the controls included within systems and applications and the steps used in their development.

The term application applies to agents, applets, software, databases, data warehouses, and knowledge-based systems.

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Software Development Life Cycle

Primary objective of any SW Development process is to develop a quality product that meets customer requirements within budget and schedule

Early models were simplistic and assumed each process step was complete before moving onto the next.

System Requirements

Analysis

Program Design

Coding

Testing

Operations & Maintenance

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SW Development Life Cycle

Subsequent models recognized the need for iterating between steps or for iterating through the process several times.

Waterfall model, modified Waterfall, Spiral Model

Verification – evaluate product in development against the specification.

Validation – Evaluate against real-world requirements and concepts.

Information Security should be handled like any other business requirement and be addressed at every step of the development process.

Copyright © 2013 University of North America. All rights reserved.

Relevance to Security Architecture and Models and Operations Security

Separation of duties (Development, QA, Installation/Roll-out)

Configuration/Change Management (applies to documentation and hardware as well as software)

Security Classification B2 and B3 requires configuration management be enforced during development and maintenance

Security Classification A1 requires configuration management be enforced during the entire life cycle

Certification – comprehensive evaluation of the technical and non-technical security features of an information system

Accreditation – formal declaration by a Designated Approving Authority where an information system is approved for production

Copyright © 2013 University of North America. All rights reserved.

Security Life Cycle Components – System Feasibility

Information Security Policy

Standards

Legal Issues

‘Traditional or Waterfall Methodology’

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Security Life Cycle Components – SW Plans & Requirements

Threats & Vulnerabilities

Security Requirements

Reasonable Care, Due Diligence

Legal Liabilities

Desired Level of Protection

Test Plans

‘Traditional or Waterfall Methodology’

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Security Life Cycle Components – Product Design

Incorporate Security Specifications

Determine Access Control

Evaluate Encryption Options

Refine Test Plans

Define Product Documentation

‘Traditional or Waterfall Methodology’

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Security Life Cycle Components – Detailed Design

Detailed Design

Design Security Controls per legal requirements

Design Access Controls

Employ Encryption

Consider Business Continuity Issues

Detailed Test Plans/Scripts

Detailed Documentation Design

‘Traditional or Waterfall Methodology’

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Security Life Cycle Components – Coding

Develop Security-related Code

Support Business Continuity Plan

Unit Testing

Develop Documentation

‘Traditional or Waterfall Methodology’

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Security Life Cycle Components – Integration

Integrate Security Components

Integration Testing

Conduct Security-related product verification

Refine Documentation

‘Traditional or Waterfall Methodology’

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Security Life Cycle Components – Implementation

Install Security Software

Test Security Software

Complete Documentation, Certification, Accreditation

‘Traditional or Waterfall Methodology’

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Security Life Cycle Components – Operations & Maintenance

Revalidate Security Controls

Conduct Penetration Testing and Vulnerability Analysis

Implement Change Management/Control Process

Evaluate/Monitor SLA Conformance

Maintain Documentation

Re-certification

‘Traditional or Waterfall Methodology’

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Contemporary Development Methodologies

Rapid Application Development (RAD)

Evolutionary Software Development

Prototyping

Spiral: This model of development combines the features of the prototyping model and the waterfall model.

Incremental

Concurrent Development Model

Fourth Generation Development

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RAD

Key Phases

Business Modeling

Data Modeling

Process Modeling

Application generation

Testing and Turnover

Implications for Security Requirements?

Challenges and Barriers?

Source: Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach; Fourth Edition, Roger S. Pressman; ISBN 0-07-052182-4

Copyright © 2013 University of North America. All rights reserved.

Evolutionary Software Development

Implications for Security Requirements?

Challenges and Barriers?

Planning

Risk Analysis

Engineering

Design

Construction

Release

Customer

Evaluation

Customer Communication

Entry Point

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Relevance to Security Architecture and Models and Operations Security

Separation of duties (Development, QA, Installation/Roll-out)

Configuration/Change Management (applies to documentation and hardware as well as software)

Security Classification B2 and B3 requires configuration management be enforced during development and maintenance

Security Classification A1 requires configuration management be enforced during the entire life cycle

Certification – comprehensive evaluation of the technical and non-technical security features of an information system

Accreditation – formal declaration by a Designated Approving Authority where an information system is approved for production

Copyright © 2013 University of North America. All rights reserved.

Capability Maturity Model

Quality of a software product is directly related to the quality of the development and maintenance process from which it is produced.

Five Maturity Levels

Initiating

Repeatable

Defined

Managed

Optimizing

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Application Controls

Enforce an organizations security policy and procedures to maintain Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability

Data input

Data processing

Data output

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Application Controls Confidentiality & Integrity

Input Controls

Data checks (range checking, validity checks)

Date stamping during data create/edit

Processing Controls

Ensure accuracy of transaction processing – roll-backs, timely and accurate re-processing invalid transactions

Output Controls

Input/Output comparison checks for data integrity

Secured printer access, printer headings/banners, signed receipts for printed material for confidentiality

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Application Controls Availability

Service Level Agreement (SLA)

Turn-around times

Ave. response times

# of on-line users

System utilization rates

System up-time

Volume of transactions

Production problems

Two-phase commit – distributed databases

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Application Control Types

 

Application control type

Accuracy

Security

Consistency

Preventive

Data checks, forms, custom screens, validity checks

Firewalls, sensitivity labels, encryption, passwords, test environments

Data dictionary, programming standards

Detective

Hash controls, cyclic redundancy checks

IDS and audit trails

Comparison controls, relationship tests

Corrective

Backups, checkpoint restarts

Emergency response and reference monitor

Program comments and database controls

 

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Security Control Architecture

(Covered in Domain 5)

Defined Subset of Subjects and Objects

Trusted Computing Base

Security Perimeter

Reference Monitor and Security Kernel

Domains

Resource Isolation

Security Policy

Least Privilege

Layering, Data Hiding and Abstraction

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Implementation/Operation Controls

All support personnel should be authorized

Code Reviews (also part of Change Management) – prior to implementation

Separation of Duties

Development staff should not review, implement systems

Development staff should not support production data

Development staff should not manage security function

Accountability

No access should be permitted directly to database

Production data should be managed by users, not support staff

All access to production data should be logged

Least Privilege

Access Control

Access given to necessary data fields only

Layered Defense – Access controls should be used in addition to system access

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Distributed Environment

Geographically distributed components interconnected through one or more network

Client/Server

Intranet/Internet – mobile code

Applet – usually written in Java

Distributed as an attachment in www document

Navigator restricts applet file and network access to prevent security violations

Full Java applications running outside of browser are not restricts

Active X – MS answer to Java, COM-based technology that provides the fundamental building blocks used in most Windows applications

Agent/Proxy

Used in client-server model, performs information preparation or exchange for client or server

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Distributed Computing Environment (DCE)

An industry-standard software technology for setting up and managing computing and data exchange in a system of distributed computers.

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Distributed Environment Security Mechanisms

Access Control

Identification

Authentication

Intrusion Detection

Emergency Response Plans

Logs/Audit Trails

Firewall/Browser configurations that restrict or prevent downloading of applets

Copyright © 2013 University of North America. All rights reserved.

SW Development Languages

Interpreted languages

Executes each instruction in real-time

Also known as run-time binding

Java

Compiled languages

Translates into machine code, which is executed by the computer

Binding occurs at compile time

C++

Higher security risk than interpreted because malicious code can be embedded in the compiled code, making it difficult to detect

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JAVA

Programming language designed specifically for the Internet

Security Levels

Untrusted – applets are not permitted to run

High Security – applets are not permitted to read, write or delete files. They cannot access WebView Settings. They may only connect to and accept connections from their server of origin.

Medium Security – applets can be granted permission to read, write or delete files and access WebView Settings (after a warning is displayed). Access to clipboard is not permitted.

Low Security – applets run with minimal constraints. No warning are generated for potentially unsafe actions. WebView generates a warning if local applications are launched.

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Malicious Code

Viruses – program code inserted into other program code with the intent of causing an unexpected and undesirable event.

File Infectors – attaches to program files, usually COM or EXE files and are loaded when the program file is loaded.

System/Boot Record Infectors – infects executable code found in certain system areas or master boot records on the disk or to the DOS boot sector on diskettes.

Macro Viruses – infects applications, such as MS Word.

Trojan Horses – a program or virus in which malicious or harmful code is contained inside “apparently” harmless programs, data or messages.

Logic Bombs – code inserted into an application or OS that executes when a specified condition is met.

Worm – a program that uses communications methods to propagate itself between systems

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Object-Oriented Development Methodology

Provides the capability to model the “real-world”

Has the potential of reducing propagation of program errors

Objects are encapsulated

Messages are sent to request performance of defined operations

Provides a level of independence from other objects

Over the long-term, increases code re-usability, reducing development costs

Requires disciplined process with upfront analysis and design to reap the benefits

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Object Oriented Systems – Fundamentals

Subject – active entity, generally in the form of a person, process, or device that causes information to flow among objects or to change the system state

Object – passive entity that contains or receives information

Message – tells an object to perform an operation

Method – defines actions performed in response to a message

Behavior – results exhibited by an object upon receipt of a message

Class – a set of objects that share common structure and behavior

Instance – objects are instances of classes that contain their methods

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Object Oriented Systems – Fundamentals

Inheritance (Multiple Inheritance) – Methods from one class are inherited by a subclass

Multiple inheritance – a class inherits behavioral characteristics from more than one parent class

Delegation – forwarding of a request by one object to another

Polymorphism – different objects may respond to a common set of operations in different ways

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Object Oriented Systems – Fundamentals

Polyinstantiation – the development of a detailed version of an object from another object using different values in the new object.

ORB (CORBA) – Object Request Broker – locator/distributor of objects across a network. CORBA is Common Object Request Broker, which defines an industry standard allowing heterogeneous systems to interface and communicate.

COM (formerly OLE), DCOM – standard that supports the exchange of common objects among programs.

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Database Systems – Types

Hierarchical

Mesh (Network)

Object-oriented

Relational

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Object-Oriented Databases

“Subjects”

“Objects”

“Methods”

Controls using encapsulation, inheritance, information hiding

Permits classification of an object’s sensitivity through the use of class and instance

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Relational Databases

Relations – tables

Tuples – rows or records

Security can be provided via views – “virtual” relations

Normalization – helps organize data and eliminate redundancy

First Normal Form – no repeating groups or multiple column values

Second Normal Form – Non-key field must depend on primary key

Third Normal Form – Non-key field cannot depend on primary key

Referential Integrity – a system of rules used to ensure that relationships between records in related tables are valid and cannot be accidentally changed or deleted

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Relational DB Security Issues

Aggregation

The act of obtaining information of a higher sensitivity level by combining information of lower sensitivity levels.

Inference

The ability of a user to infer or deduce information about data at sensitivity levels for which they do not have access.

Multi-level Security

Enforces mandatory access controls in additional discretionary access control to address confidentiality

May create conflict between integrity and confidentiality when integrity rules are enforced

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Relational DB Security Issues (continued)

Polyinstantiation – also describes a situation where the same primary key is used for different relations to store information at different classification levels. Just by the act of attempting to create an entry at the lower classification level with the same primary key that exists at the higher classification level and having that transaction fail, the user could INFER the classified data.

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Data Dictionary

Database for developers

Records the data structures used by an application

Data elements

Data element characteristics

X-reference to programs/applications that use the data element and associated files

Serves as a control when programmers are required to use the variable names from the Data Dictionary

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Data Warehousing/Data Mining

Data Warehouse – repository of information from heterogeneous databases made available to users for reporting/queries

Data Mining – analysis of data for relationships not previously discovered. Results include

Associations

Sequences

Classification

Clustering

Forecasting

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Additional Data Store – Memory

Covered in detail in Security Architecture and Security Model Domain

Primary (Real)

Usually Random Access Memory

Directly addressable by CPU

Used for storage of instructions or data

Secondary

Slower, usually magnetic disc

Non-volatile storage

Virtual

Uses secondary memory in conjunction with primary

Provides a CPU with larger, apparent address space

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Additional Data Store – Memory (continued)

Random

RAM – Random Access Memory

Memory locations are directly addressed and data that is stored can be altered

Volatile

Stored data is lost if power is removed from the system

RAM is volatile

Sequential

Data is retrieved by sequentially searching the memory store from the beginning rather than directly accessing the location

Magnetic Tape

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Artificial Intelligence Systems (Knowledge-based Systems)

Exhibits reasoning similar to that of a human being to solve problems

Expert System

Neural Networks

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Expert System

Knowledge base – in the form of rules about a particular domain – based on human experiences

Inference Engine – determines if the rules are satisfied by the input

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Neural Networks

Based on the functioning of biological neurons

Network of very simple processors, called neurons or units – each with a small about of local memory

Neurons are connected by unidirectional communications channels

Neuron operate on local data and inputs received via connectors

Training rule enables learning from examples and ability to do generalizations

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Application-related Threats

Trap Door

Hidden Mechanism To Bypass Protection Measures

Letter bomb – email attachment with malicious code

Back door – unapproved method of accessing the system

Covert channel – Communication channel violating information transfer policies

Covert storage channel – Writing to storage through one process, and reading by another (lower security level)

Covert timing channel – Processes signal to one another by modulating system use

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Methods of Attack

Brute force – Trying all possible words and character combinations to find the correct password, pass phrase or PIN

Denial of Service – An incident in which a user or organization is deprived of the service of a resource they would normally expect to have

Dictionary Attacks – Attacker uses a pre-defined list of dictionary words and tries each entry to see if it matches a user’s password

Spoofing – The user appears to be someone else or manipulates packets so they appear to come from a another system or network

Copyright © 2013 University of North America. All rights reserved.

Methods of Attack (continued)

Pseudo Flaw – An apparent loophole deliberately implanted in an operating system program as a trap for intruders

Alteration of authorized code

Interrupts – An external signal interrupts normal program flow to request service

Remote Maintenance – Ability to access a system for maintenance from a remote location, by-passing a system’s normal security protections

Browsing – The act of searching through storage to locate or acquire information without necessarily knowing of the existence or the format of the information being sought

Copyright © 2013 University of North America. All rights reserved.

Methods of Attack (continued)

Traffic analysis – Involves analyzing data characteristics (message length, message frequency, etc…) and patterns of transmissions to infer information

Flooding – Forwarding by a router of a packet from any node to every other node connected to the router

Time of check/Time of use (TOC/TOU) – Exploits the difference in the time that security controls were applied and the time the authorized service was used

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Glossary

Acceptance inspection – Final inspection to determine whether or not a system meets the specified technical and performance standards

Assurance – A measure of confidence that the security features and architecture of system accurately mediate and enforce the security policy

Configuration Control – The process of controlling modifications to the system’s hardware, firmware, software, and documentation that provides sufficient assurance that the system is protected against the introduction of improper modifications prior to, during, and after system implementation.

Copyright © 2013 University of North America. All rights reserved.

Glossary

Configuration Management – The management of security features and assurances through control of changes made to system hardware, software, firmware, documentation, test, test fixtures, and test documentation throughout the development and operational life of the system.

Due Care – Minimum and customary practice of responsible protection of assets that reflects a community of social norm.

Due Diligence – Prudent management and execution of due care.

Copyright © 2013 University of North America. All rights reserved.

Glossary

Formal Development Methodology – A collection of languages and tools that enforces a rigorous method of verification.

Formal Verification – The process of using formal proofs to demonstrate the consistency between a formal specification of a system and a formal security policy model (design verification) or between the formal specification and its high-level program implementation (implementation verification)

Functional Testing – The segment of security testing in which the advertised security mechanisms of the system are tested, under operational conditions, for correct operation.

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Glossary

Granularity – An expression of the relative size of a data object; for example, protection at the file level is considered coarse granularity, whereas protection at the field level is considered to be of a finer granularity.

Secure Configuration Management – The set of procedures that are appropriate for controlling changes to a system’s hardware and software structure for the purpose of ensuring that changes will lead to violations of the system’s security policy.

Security Requirements – The types and level of protection that are necessary for equipment, data, information, applications, and facilities to meet security policy.

Copyright © 2013 University of North America. All rights reserved.

Glossary

Security Specifications – A detailed description of the safeguards required to protect a system.

Security Testing – A process that is used to determine that the security features of a system are implemented as designed. This process includes hands-on functional testing, penetration testing, and verification.

Top-level Specification – A nonprocedural description of system behavior at the most abstract level; typically, a functional specification that omits all implementation details.

Work Factor – The effort or time needed to overcome protective measures.

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Operations/

Maintenance

SW Rqmts/Plans

Product Design

Coding

Detailed Design

Integration

Implementation

System Feasibility

Operations/

Maintenance

System Feasibility

Product Design

Coding

Detailed Design

Integration

Implementation

SW Plans &

Requirements

Operations/

Maintenance

System Feasibility

SW Plans &

Requirements

Coding

Detailed Design

Integration

Implementation

Product Design

Operations/

Maintenance

System Feasibility

SW Plans &

Requirements

Coding

Product Design

Integration

Implementation

Detailed Design

Operations/

Maintenance

System Feasibility

SW Plans &

Requirements

Detailed Design

Product Design

Integration

Implementation

Coding

Operations/

Maintenance

System Feasibility

SW Plans &

Requirements

Detailed Design

Product Design

Coding

Implementation

Integration

Operations/

Maintenance

System Feasibility

SW Plans &

Requirements

Detailed Design

Product Design

Coding

Integration

Implementation

System Feaibility

SW Rqmts/Plans

Product Design

Coding

Detailed Design

Operations/

Maintenance

Integration

Implementation

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