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Disability Studies DQ 3 1. Have you or someone close to you every experienced stigmatization related to disability or other reason? If so, what type of sti

Disability Studies DQ 3 1. Have you or someone close to you every experienced stigmatization related to disability or other reason? If so, what type of sti

Click here to Order a Custom answer to this Question from our writers. It’s fast and plagiarism-free.

Disability Studies DQ 3 1. Have you or someone close to you every experienced stigmatization related to disability or other reason? If so, what type of stigma? What are (were) the individual as well as public consequences?

2. Chose at least two of this week’s resources which are of particular interest to you. Briefly summarize the main points in each resource and elaborate further on the articles’ significance to you.

3. There are some functional disabilities that come into play when a person starts to grow older, especially in their later years of adulthood. Please share some of these with the class. Have you known anyone who has faced such challenges? Share your experiences with the class.

You must start a thread before you can read and reply to other threads 

References required to be in APA format. There is no specific word count required however. Every part of each question needs to be addressed.

Use at least two of the references:

https://reader.mediawiremobile.com/accessibility/issues/204297/articles/5c4f57820ed1020171b99752/reader

https://www.ssa.gov/disability/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1802121/

https://go-gale-com.ezproxy.umgc.edu/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX3273000284&v=2.1&u=umd_umuc&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w&asid=7f4239853ece8568e09ea156e46c7a39

https://go-gale-com.ezproxy.umgc.edu/ps/retrieve.do?tabID=T003&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchResultsType=SingleTab&searchType=BasicSearchForm&currentPosition=5&docId=GALE%7CCX2491200533&docType=Topic+overview&sort=Relevance&contentSegment=&prodId=GVRL&contentSet=GALE%7CCX2491200533&searchId=R2&userGroupName=umd_umuc&inPS=true State Strategies for Promoting Wellness and Healthy
Lifestyles for People with Disabilities

© Association of State and Territorial Health Officials 2013 2231 Crystal Drive, Ste 450, Arlington, VA
(202) 371-9090 www.astho.org

Inadequate access to preventive health and other health promotion services among people with
disabilities compared to the general population is a public health concern. More than 54 million
people—one in five Americans—have a disability with which they were either born or acquired through
injury, age, or illness.2,3 In 2006, disability-associated healthcare expenditures for adults in the United
States totaled $397.8 billion (26.7% of all expenditures).4 Of
this national total, $118.9 billion was for the Medicare
population, $161.1 billion for Medicaid recipients, and $117.8
billion for non-public (privately insured or uninsured) sources.5
Medicaid serves an estimated 9.9 billion children and adults
with disabilities and is the primary way of providing healthcare
services to people with disabilities.6

A disability is a feature of the body, mind, or senses that can
affect a person’s daily life. People with disabilities need healthcare and health promotion programs for
the same reasons that the general population does. Despite this knowledge, people with disabilities
experience barriers to preventive healthcare services, which can lead to poor health status, delayed
treatment of chronic illnesses, and failure to prevent secondary conditions or health problems related to
a disability. Research indicates that people with disabilities may be disproportionately affected by excess
weight or obesity; increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, substance abuse, injury, depression, and
stress; and receive less frequent cancer screenings compared to people without disabilities.7 Health
disparities for people with disabilities vary by ethnicity, age, gender, and income level.8

Several national initiatives are focused on people with disabilities and provide leadership for an
increased public health focus on the health issues that affect people with disabilities. Some of these
include:

• The American Public Health Association (APHA) Disability Section.9
• The Healthy People 2020 inclusion of a focus area on disability and health.10
• The U.S. Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Improve the Health and Wellness of Persons with

Disabilities.11
• HHS’s National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities.12

In addition, CDC’s National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD)13 supports
18 state-based programs to ensure that individuals with disabilities are included in ongoing state disease
prevention, health promotion, and emergency response activities.

More people with disabilities are living longer, higher-quality lives due to the positive impact of public
health, medical, and other interventions. State and territorial health agencies play a key role in ensuring
people with disabilities have access to these healthcare and health promotion services. This issue brief
provides some background on the barriers and challenges to accessing preventive healthcare and health
promotion services and highlights some of the initiatives that state public health agencies have
undertaken to remove those barriers.

A disability is a feature of the body,
mind, or senses that can affect a
person’s daily life. People with

disabilities need healthcare and
health promotion programs for the

same reasons that the general
population does.1

State Strategies for Promoting Wellness and Healthy
Lifestyles for People with Disabilities

© Association of State and Territorial Health Officials 2013 2231 Crystal Drive, Ste 450, Arlington, VA
(202) 371-9090 www.astho.org

Barriers to Preventive Health and Health Promotion Activities and Services

There are significant health inequities that lead to inadequate access to preventive health and other
health promotion services among people with disabilities. People with disabilities are more likely to
experience disadvantages in health and well-being compared to the general population, and barriers to
preventive health services can often delay treatment of chronic conditions and failure to prevent
secondary conditions. Widespread challenges to accessing healthcare services and health promotion
activities for people with disabilities include physical, environmental, programmatic, and attitudinal and
cultural barriers. To begin removing these barriers, public
health needs to consider a new approach where accessibility
and accommodation for people with disabilities is part of the
overall agenda. Public health can also help eliminate health
inequities by addressing social determinants of health (e.g.,
education and poverty) that exist among people with
disabilities.

Physical Barriers
Due to the lack of accessible places to be physically active (e.g., sidewalks, parks, fitness centers, green
spaces), individuals with disabilities are more likely to be less physically active than people without
disabilities. In 2008, the National Health Interview Survey reported that 27.3 percent of people with
disabilities met the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, whereas 46.9 percent of the general
population met the same guidelines. Engaging in regular physical activity is one of the most important
things that people of all ages and abilities can do to improve their health, well-being, and quality of life.
Although the causes of obesity are diverse and complex, lack of accessible places to be physically active,
combined with other food access factors (e.g., difficulty preparing and shopping for healthy foods),
create additional barriers for people with disabilities. Having access to places and spaces to be physical
active may also help to prevent some secondary conditions. Consequently, when public spaces—
schools, offices, healthcare facilities, and parks—are built, they should be designed using the Universal
Design14 principles so they can be used by all people, regardless of age and ability.

People with disabilities also often lack access to basic primary and preventive health services due to
medical equipment that is not accessible.15, 16 Despite being at higher risk of developing certain chronic
and secondary conditions, these individuals are frequently prevented from receiving routine physical
exams and weigh-ins, dental exams, x-rays, mammographies, Pap tests, colonoscopies, and vision
screenings.

Environmental Barriers
Environmental features affect a person’s ability to participate in various preventive health and health
promotion activities and services. The built environment includes a community’s physical form (e.g.,
urban design, land use patterns, and the transportation system) as well as the accessibility of public
buildings, facilities, and housing. When communities are not walkable/bikable/rollable, it contributes to
inadequate healthcare service access, levels of physical inactivity, and social isolation of people with
disabilities. In addition, finding accessible housing can be a challenge for people with disabilities who
want to live independently. When a home is not accessible, there is greater potential for falls, decreased
independence, and isolation. 17

To begin removing the health
barriers that people with disabilities
face, public health needs to consider
a new approach where accessibility
and accommodation for people with

disabilities is part of the overall
agenda.

State Strategies for Promoting Wellness and Healthy
Lifestyles for People with Disabilities

© Association of State and Territorial Health Officials 2013 2231 Crystal Drive, Ste 450, Arlington, VA
(202) 371-9090 www.astho.org

Programmatic Barriers

Programmatic access to primary and preventive healthcare
services can refer to both the practices and policies that
are part of the delivery system. Medical equipment that is
not accessible, healthcare professionals who are not
appropriately trained, lack of interpreters during exams,
and lack of individual accommodations prevent many
people with disabilities from accessing basic medical
services.21,22 Access can be particularly challenging in rural
areas where workforce challenges are more prevalent. In
addition, people with disabilities often lack health
insurance or coverage for specialty care services, including
long-term care, care coordination, prescription
medications, durable medical equipment, and assistive
technologies.23

Obtaining treatment and achieving recovery can be
challenging for anyone struggling with substance abuse,
but people with disabilities are often inhibited by
additional obstacles. A number of risk factors, including
lack of access to prevention and treatment services, make
people with disabilities more vulnerable to encountering
problems associated with substance abuse.24 Research
shows that substance abuse prevalence rates are higher
for people with disabilities (e.g., traumatic brain injuries,
spinal cord injuries, or mental illness) compared to the
general population.25,26

Attitudinal and Cultural Barriers
Attitudinal and cultural barriers related to healthcare
services often lead to discrimination toward people with
disabilities and can be more challenging to overcome than
physical, environmental, and programmatic barriers.
Healthcare providers may overlook mental health and
substance abuse needs because they are focused on a
patient’s disability, often leading to misdiagnosis or not
being diagnosed at all.27 If left untreated, non-disability-
related health conditions could exacerbate other
secondary conditions.

Providers may also mistakenly assume that people with
disabilities are not sexually active, especially if the disability is severe or disfiguring. Therefore, this
population often is not screened for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and women are not given
regular gynecological exams or advised about preconception health and healthy pregnancies.28

Women with Disabilities

About 27 million women in the United
States have disabilities. Research
indicates that women with disabilities
may not receive health screenings
regularly or screenings that adhere to the
recommended guidelines.18 Failure to
provide comprehensive services for
women with disabilities can have
significant implications on their health.

Breast Health

• Women with disabilities may have
delayed diagnosis or treatment of
breast cancer due to inaccessible
mammography equipment. Self-
reported mammography use is lower
for women with a disability (72.2%
for 40 years of age or older; 78.1%
for 50-74 years of age) than women
without a disability (77.8% and
82.6%, respectively).19

Reproductive Health

• Women with disabilities are less
likely than women without
disabilities to report having a Pap test
in the past three years.20 Inadequate
service utilization may be due to: not
being aware of the importance of
having the exam, difficulty getting on
the exam table, or finding a provider
who is knowledgeable about their
specific disability. In addition, women
with disabilities may not receive
regular gynecological exams or STD
screenings due to providers assuming
they are not sexually active.

State Strategies for Promoting Wellness and Healthy
Lifestyles for People with Disabilities

© Association of State and Territorial Health Officials 2013 2231 Crystal Drive, Ste 450, Arlington, VA
(202) 371-9090 www.astho.org

Strategies for State and Territorial Health Agencies

State and territorial health agencies play an important role in expanding health promotion and wellness
activities for people with disabilities. CDC currently supports 18 states with implementing disability and
health programs, 11 of which are a collaboration with or housed within the state health agency. Even
when states do not have specific disability and health programs, state health agencies can include
people with disabilities in health promotion services and activities. Strategies that states may consider
to reduce the barriers for people with disabilities include the following:

• Work with healthcare providers to ensure medical equipment (e.g., exam tables, scales),
facilities, and buildings are accessible to increase the utilization of preventive services.

• Encourage providers to advocate for their patients with disabilities and ensure that all available
resources are used to treat a patient.

• Work with healthcare providers to ensure that staff are adequately trained to provide
preventive services to people with disabilities.

• Develop policies to encourage health insurers to provide provisional transition services to
ensure continuity of care in the event of provider or service plan change.

• Develop, strengthen, and enforce policies that further the Americans with Disabilities Act’s
scope. Many healthcare providers lack awareness of what is required to ensure patients with
disabilities have access to culturally-appropriate care.

• Include people with disabilities in the planning, reporting, and evaluation of topics such as
medical reimbursement, health service delivery, community planning, communication, and
transportation.

• Include people with disabilities in the design, planning, and implementation of community
interventions. Have individuals with disabilities conduct staff trainings.

• Target people with disabilities in all health promotion, preventive health, mental health, and
substance abuse outreach and programs.

• Partner with organizations that advocate and serve people with disabilities to leverage the work
they are already doing, expand efforts, and create greater reach.

• Educate people with disabilities about the importance of preventive health services. Encourage
them to advocate for their health needs and speak up when they are not being met.

• Work with wellness and fitness centers to reduce the barriers to physical activity programs by
ensuring access to facilities and equipment. Encourage implementation of programs that target
individuals with disabilities.

• Facilitate partnerships with a variety of state, local, and private agencies (including mental
health services, social services, Medicaid, transportation, and other programs) to coordinate
efforts to increase services and decrease physical, environmental, attitudinal, and cultural
barriers for all programs and interventions.

• Develop materials in accessible formats (e.g., braille, large print, audio tape, e-text) that are at
the appropriate reading level and available in different languages.

• Include pictures of people with disabilities and of different ethnicities in program materials and
messaging (posters, flyers, brochures, PSAs, videos) to encourage participation.

State Strategies for Promoting Wellness and Healthy
Lifestyles for People with Disabilities

© Association of State and Territorial Health Officials 2013 2231 Crystal Drive, Ste 450, Arlington, VA
(202) 371-9090 www.astho.org

State Disability and Health Activities

State disability and health programs are collaborating with other state and local agencies to promote
wellness and healthy lifestyles for people with disabilities. These programs have developed a variety of
initiatives around issues related to access, women’s health, health promotion training and curricula for
consumers and providers, emergency preparedness, physical activity, and worksite health promotion.
The following state examples highlight some of these activities.

The Illinois Disability and Health Program
collaborated with the Illinois Department of
Public Health’s Office of Women’s Health to
include language in its Women’s Health Mini-
Grant Program application, encouraging
grantees to include women with disabilities as a
target group. There are three different health
promotion programs offered through the mini-
grants: Women Walking Out, Building Better
Bones, and Life Smart for Women. Specific
disability-related questions were also added to
the mini-grant quarterly reports in fiscal year
2013 to identify the number of women with
disabilities who participate in the programs. By
continuing to collect this data in 2014 and
beyond, the programs will learn how many
women with disabilities participate in women’s
health programs and increase disability
awareness among grantees.

The Massachusetts Department of Public
Health promotes and provides sensitivity
training to healthcare providers on the unique
health needs of people with disabilities. With
CDC funding, the state Health and Disability
Program (HDP) adapted its “Welcoming
Workshops” presentation to include
“Navigating the Patient with a Disability” for
patient navigators. This modification includes
information on the Massachusetts Facility
Assessment Tool, accessible print materials, and
planning accessible meetings. HDP also tailors
its workshops to include audience-specific
information to achieve high impact. By
strengthening ties to other programs within the
state, HDP has a direct impact on healthcare
providers working with people with disabilities.

The Michigan Department of Community
Health (MDCH) has been promoting the
evidence-based, chronic disease self-
management, Personal Action Toward Health
(PATH) program to people with disabilities, so
about half of the PATH participants have a
disability. This goal has been achieved by
offering workshops at disability-friendly
locations throughout the state; collaborating
with disability service, advocacy, and behavioral
health organizations; training people with
disabilities as PATH leaders; and targeting
marketing. In addition, MDCH developed a
postcard to market disability-friendly physical
activity options to people with disabilities. The
postcards are placed in disability advocacy and
service locations statewide. MDCH has also
worked with the state American Cancer Society
chapter and the state’s Breast and Cervical
Cancer Prevention Program to determine the
building and equipment accessibility of
mammography facilities throughout the state.
Through an online portal, women with
disabilities are able to search for accessible
facilities in their county.29

The Montana Disability and Health Program
(MTDH) works to infuse disability health and
wellness goals into the plans, policies,
programs, and procedures of state agencies and
community service providers by having people
with disabilities serve as “disability advisors” in
public health standing committees. As part of
the planning process, disability advisors identify
disability-specific resources to protect and
promote or barriers to remove. MTDH has
created practice guidelines that offer
suggestions on how to involve people with

State Strategies for Promoting Wellness and Healthy
Lifestyles for People with Disabilities

© Association of State and Territorial Health Officials 2013 2231 Crystal Drive, Ste 450, Arlington, VA
(202) 371-9090 www.astho.org

disabilities as members of advisory groups.30 In
addition, MTDH and the Montana Housing Task
Force support and advocate for visitability in
home design through a statewide educational
campaign. To date, approximately 8,300
consumers, builders, architects, policymakers,
and other stakeholders have been educated
about visitability in home design.31

The New York State Department of Health
(NYSDOH) Disability and Health Program (DHP)
developed an inclusion policy that requires all
NYSDOH requests for proposals and
applications to incorporate strategies to ensure
people with disabilities are integrated into
public health programs and services. In
addition, all programs must include an
evaluation component to assess the policy’s
effect and reach. DHP also developed a
Medicaid Buy-In Program for Working People
with Disabilities (MBI-WPD),32 which allows
working people with disabilities to earn
additional income without the possibility of
losing critical healthcare coverage. A toolkit has
also been created to help New Yorkers
determine if they would like to apply for MBI-
WPD and assist with the application process.33

The North Carolina Office on Disability and
Health (NCODH) collaborated with the Center
for Universal Design to develop “Removing
Barriers to Health Clubs and Fitness Facilities: A
Guide for Accommodating All Members,
Including People with Disabilities and Older

Adults”.34 NCODH developed a community-
centered training model based on this guide
with the goal of creating fitness environments
that are accessible, safe, and support people of
all abilities. NCODH also offers the Work
Healthy, Live Healthy program, which focuses
on providing environmental supports for health
promotion at worksites to promote healthy
lifestyle choices. The program targets adults
with disabilities who receive services at
community rehabilitation agencies.

The South Carolina Interagency Office of
Disability and Health (SCIODH) has partnered
with the University of South Carolina to teach
future medical professionals and
paraprofessionals about the specials needs of
people with disabilities. Students are taught
how to lift patients from wheelchairs and onto
an examination table, how to communicate in a
sensitive way, and what it means to have a
disability. SCIODH also partnered with the state
Department of Disabilities and Special Needs
and the state health agency to develop the
Steps to Your Health program, which is
designed for people with intellectual
disabilities. Program participants reported
increased knowledge, healthier self-reported
diet, more frequent physical activity, and
reduction in body mass index following the
program.35 SCIODH follows up with class
attendees after one year to see if they have
maintained the healthy lifestyles they learned.

Conclusion

State health agencies are increasingly focusing on health and wellness promotion initiatives for people
with disabilities. However, these programs currently exist in a limited number of states, indicating room
for growth at the national and state levels. Research indicates that disability and health programs are
beneficial not only for people with disabilities, but for the population and economy as a whole because
these programs decrease healthcare expenditures due to preventable illness, reduce disparities, and
promote inclusiveness and access for all. As public health moves toward integrating disability into its
overall agenda, state health agencies need to continue to prioritize accessibility; accommodations and
alternative formats; messaging and communications; and disability sensitivity, cultural awareness, and
etiquette to ensure that people with disabilities can participate to their full extent.

State Strategies for Promoting Wellness and Healthy
Lifestyles for People with Disabilities

© Association of State and Territorial Health Officials 2013 2231 Crystal Drive, Ste 450, Arlington, VA
(202) 371-9090 www.astho.org

Resources

American Association on Health and Disability (AAHD)
www.aahd.us

AAHD Health Promotion Resource Center
http://www.aahd.us/resource-center/

AAHD Susan G. Komen Race for the Cure Grants

Women’s Health

Amputee Coalition
http://www.amputee-coalition.org/

ASTHO Disability Case Studies
http://www.astho.org/Programs/Access/Maternal-and-Child-Health/Disability-Case-Studies/Disability-
Case-Studies/

Association of University Centers on Disabilities
http://www.aucd.org

CDC National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD)
http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/index.html

CDC NCBDDD State Disability and Health Programs
http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/disabilityandhealth/programs.html

National Association of County & City Health Officials
http://www.naccho.org/topics/HPDP/healthdisa/

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration Wellness Initiative
http://promoteacceptance.samhsa.gov/10by10/

1 HHS. “The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Improve the Health and Wellness of Persons with Disabilities.” HHS,
Office of the Surgeon General, 2005. Available at:
http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/calls/disabilities/calltoaction.pdf.pdf. Accessed 11-14-2013.
2 American Association on Health and Disability. “Health Promotion and Wellness for People with Disabilities.”
April 2011. Available at: http://www.aahd.us/2011/04/health-promotion-and-wellness-for-people-with-
disabilities/. Accessed 10-16-2013.
3 HHS. “The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Improve the Health and Wellness of Persons with Disabilities.” HHS,
Office of the Surgeon General, 2005. Available at:
http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/calls/disabilities/calltoaction.pdf.pdf. Accessed 11-14-2013.
4 Anderson WL, Armour BS, Finkelstein EA, Wiener JM. “Estimates of state-level health-care expenditures
associated with disability.” Public Health Rep 2010;125(1):44–51. Available at:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2789815/. Accessed 10-16-2013.
5 Ibid.

Home

http://www.aahd.us/resource-center/

Women’s Health

http://www.amputee-coalition.org/

http://www.astho.org/Programs/Access/Maternal-and-Child-Health/Disability-Case-Studies/Disability-Case-Studies/

http://www.astho.org/Programs/Access/Maternal-and-Child-Health/Disability-Case-Studies/Disability-Case-Studies/

http://www.aucd.org/

http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/index.html

http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/disabilityandhealth/programs.html

http://www.naccho.org/topics/HPDP/healthdisa/

http://promoteacceptance.samhsa.gov/10by10/

http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/calls/disabilities/calltoaction.pdf.pdf

Health Promotion and Wellness for People with Disabilities

Health Promotion and Wellness for People with Disabilities

http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/calls/disabilities/calltoaction.pdf.pdf

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2789815/

State Strategies for Promoting Wellness and Healthy
Lifestyles for People with Disabilities

© Association of State and Territorial Health Officials 2013 2231 Crystal Drive, Ste 450, Arlington, VA
(202) 371-9090 www.astho.org

6 Association of University Centers on Disabilities. “Medicaid.” Available at:
http://www.aucd.org/template/page.cfm?id=277. Accessed 10-29-2013.
7 CDC. “CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report – United States, 2011.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly
Report. 2011; 60(Supplement): 1-114. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/other/su6001.pdf. Accessed
10-29-2013.
8 American Association on Health and Disability. “Health Promotion and Wellness for People with Disabilities.”
April 2011. Available at: http://www.aahd.us/2011/04/health-promotion-and-wellness-for-people-with-
disabilities/. Accessed 10-16-2013.
9 American Public Health Association. “Disability.” Available at:
http://www.apha.org/membergroups/sections/aphasections/disability/. Accessed 10-29-2013.
10 HHS. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. “Healthy People 2020 – Disability and Health.”
Available at: http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=9. Accessed 10-
16-2013.
11 HHS. “The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Improve the Health and Wellness of Persons with Disabilities.”
HHS, Office of the Surgeon General, 2005. Available at:
http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/calls/disabilities/calltoaction.pdf.pdf. Accessed 10-16-2013.
12 HHS, National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities. Available at: http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/npa/.
Accessed 10-16-2013.
13 CDC, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/index.html. Accessed 10-16-2013.
14 UniversalDesign.com. “What is Universal Design?” Available at: http://www.universaldesign.com/about-
universal-design.html. Accessed 10-16-2013.
15 Kirschner KL, Breslin ML, Iezzoni, LI. “Structural impairments that limit access to health care for patients with
disabilities.” JAMA. 297: 10:1121-1125. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17356035. Accessed
10-16-2013.
16 National Council on Disability. “The Current State of Health Care for People with Disabilities.” September 2009.
Available at: http://www.ncd.gov/publications/2009/Sept302009. Accessed 10-16-2013.
17 Association of University Centers on Disabilities, State-Based Disability & Health Program. “Visitability
Testimonies Increase Affordable, Accessible Housing in Montana.” Available at:
http://www.aucd.org/docs/ncbddd/MT%20Success%20Story.pdf. Accessed 10-16-2013.
18 Armour BS, Thierry JM, Wolf LA. …

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