DISCUSSION 4335 DISCUSSION Readings for this session in both Allen (2016) and your UMGC module (n.d.) take you in a very different direction away from

DISCUSSION 4335 DISCUSSION

Readings for this session in both Allen (2016) and your UMGC module (n.d.) take you in a very different direction away from

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DISCUSSION

Readings for this session in both Allen (2016) and your UMGC module (n.d.) take you in a very different direction away from psychoanalytic thinking and into the area of humanistic psychology as an explanatory model in personality development. This force in personality moves you away from a perspective on human nature that focuses on humans needing support for growth toward an existential one that celebrates the uniqueness of the individual and the person’s inherent ability to face universal life challenges. Needs such as those proposed by Fromm for relatedness, identity, and transcendence define the human experience. Moreover, some form of “actualizing” tendency as envisioned by both Maslow and Rogers propels individuals to grow in positive ways shaped by culture. This positive perspective on human behavior helped to give rise to the popular field of “positive psychology”- a focus on what people do well rather than on dysfunctional behavior. Whether transcending or actualizing … people can, and do, move in the direction of growth and fulfillment of their potential. Such development begins in childhood as illustrated through the area of social-emotional development discussed by Thompson (2021).

Your Task

1. Main Entry:  Start a new thread, and update the topic title, identifying the post as uniquely yours (e.g., Joes thoughts on …; Research gone wild…).  Within the body of your post, clearly identify each segment of the required response in order to facilitate discussion development.

a.  Fromm, Rogers, and Maslow all discuss the nature of human needs. Select any two of these theorists and compare and contrast their views on needs as influences on personality and functioning as discussed by Allen (2016).   

b. Each humanistic theorist also discusses transcendence or actualization. What do these concepts mean? Maslow believed that we must be true to our nature and use of our talents in striving toward self-actualization. How are you striving toward this goal? Be specific.

c. Discuss any point in the Thompson reading around social-emotional development that captured your interest. Explain. 

2. Post Constructive Peer Feedback: In addition to posting your Main Entry, respond to at least TWO (2) of your classmates’ entries.  In four (4) or more sentences, provide constructive feedback.  Do you agree with the points presented?  Why?  Do you have some additional thoughts to share?  Share them.  When providing your feedback present the logic behind it.

Classmate 1

Fromm, Rogers, and Maslow all discuss the nature of human needs. Select any two of these theorists and compare and contrast their views on needs as influences on personality and functioning as discussed by Allen (2016).   

Erich Fromm states that there are two basic human needs which is freedom and the need for belonging. He also states that people are alike and share existential needs, which is important because it is the necessity of experiencing life as meaningful. (Allen, 2016, p.171) Existential needs that Fromm says humans strive for are, relatedness, rootedness, identity, unity, transcendence, effectiveness, and excitation. Relatedness is human beings seeking each other to get away from separateness. (Allen, 2016, p.172). Rootedness is to create bonds and ties with other people, we need to find our brotherhood and sisterhood with humanity, but also maintain our ties with our mother. Identity is a sense of identity, knowing who you are. Unity is a sense of being unified or whole with yourself. (Allen, 2016, p.173) Transcendence is to rise above, to create, to have a sense of meaning and purpose. Effectiveness is finding meaning to life, to feel special, to see a reaction from the people we love or people we do things for. Excitation is actively striving for a goal rather than simply respond. (Allen, 2016, p.175). Fromm believes our character is stems from genetic inheritance and from how we are raised. He believes that character is something that is deeply ingrained and hard to change. There are five-character types, the productive character is the only positive type.

Carl Rogers says that for a person to grow they need an environment that provides them with acceptance and empathy; this helps them figure out whether a person self-concept becomes congruent or incongruent. Rogers believed human relationships are the key for peoples needs to be met. Rogers also believes in self-actualization which is the person to fulfill their full potential. It is a continuous journey where the individual’s concept is maintained and enhanced. Rogers says that human’s basic motive is the tendency to self-actualize which is to reach their full potential. (Allen, 2016, p.195) Rogers believes that human beings are inherently good. They will always try to build towards a fully functional person. External factors will be the only reason why they will become bad or a bad self-concept. (Allen, 2016, p. 204)

b. Each humanistic theorist also discusses transcendence or actualization. What do these concepts mean? Maslow believed that we must be true to our nature and use of our talents in striving toward self-actualization. How are you striving toward this goal? Be specific.

Self-actualization is reaching your full potential and transcendence is about transcending or rising above the self. For me it was going to school again, having the goal to finally finish something for the first time. I also sleep enough, spend quality time with my family every day, I attempt to go to the gym and live a healthy lifestyle. I think I am still stuck at the love and belonging stage. As for transcendence, I have started writing in my journal again and praying. I am not a strong writer, but I like separating myself from my feelings and understanding them. I go for nature walks, recently I walked to Iwakuni Castle, and it felt good to be separated from my phone and be with one with nature.

c. Discuss any point in the Thompson reading around social-emotional development that captured your interest. Explain. 

What captured my interest is how Thompson explains the importance of attachments and that children who have a more secure attachment will form a better relationship with friends etc. I also enjoyed the reading about authoritative parents I believe children need to make mistakes and learn from it and as parents we cannot be overbearing. (Thompson, 2014, p.7) I was also intrigued by social referencing; I always tell my husband that our daughter (just turned 1) can feel our emotions. If you’re stressed, she can feel it. I am always at peace and try to be positive and relaxed when trying to calm my daughter. (Thompson, 2014, p.11) And towards the conclusion Thompson mentions that early influences are important yes, but they are not determinative. Because not all of us can choose our family, and I know people who had awful childhood experiences and are now successful, kind, and loving human beings. (Thompson, 2014, p. 17)

  REFERENCES:

Allen, B.P. (2016). Personality theories: development, growth, and diversity (5th ed.). Psychology Press. 
https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315665115

Thompson, R. (2014) Social and Personality Development in Childhood. NOBA. Retrieved from 
https://nobaproject.com/modules/social-and-personality-development-in-childhood

Classmate 2

Fromm and Maslow were both intellectual thinkers and believers of an importance of human needs but took different approaches to reach their own conclusions. Fromm was a believer of existentialism and understanding an individual’s experience and the basis of their existence as the individuals need to exercise their own will to make choices in a world full of chaos (Allen, 2016 p. 171). He believed existentialists helped psychologists better understand each person’s world and how they lived allowing the psychologist to explore each person’s world. Existentialists rely on consciousness and personal responsibility; therefore, Fromm’s belief is that you cannot rely on upbringing, early experience, heredity, or current environment to shape yourself (Allen, 2016 p. 171).

Maslow on the other hand was not an existentialist, he believed in self-actualization above all else (Allen, 2016 p. 208). Self-actualization falls under Maslow’s “esteem” category of basic needs. He defines self-actualization as the desire for self-fulfillment, the tendency to become actualized in what is potentially (Allen, 2016 p. 214). Meaning what a person can be or is passionate about i.e. accountant, doctor, president. Maslow could not agree with Fromm in being an existentialist because he said to do that, he would have to take out the consideration of physiological and genetic inputs, which is not possible when considering the self as something that comes from the choices people make (Allen, 2016 p. 212).

Transcendence is the existence or experience beyond a normal physical level. Meaning, setting a goal, and going beyond that goal. Or not limiting yourself by your own thoughts. Actualization is making reality of something. Like reaching a goal or having a dream of competing something and bringing that to fruition. A few ways that I am personally striving towards self-actualization are, setting daily, weekly, and yearly goals for myself, my family, and my future. Some goals I set daily are exercise and eating healthy, weekly, I set goals to improve on what I did the week before and complete homework assignments on time, yearly I want to be in a better place financially, in my career and in my school progression than the year before.

In the reading by Thompson, the emotional development between infants and mothers was the most interesting to me. I enjoyed the section that talked about authoritative parenting and how children will develop a greater degree of competence and self-confidence if parents have high but reasonable expectations of their children’s behavior (Thompson, 2021 p. 4). That made me think back to my childhood and the unrealistic expectations that were set on me and how that impacted my level of self-confidence as a young adult.

Refences:

Allen, B.P. (2016). Personality Theories : Development, Growth, and Diversity: Vol. Fifth edition. Psychology Press.

Thompson, R. (2014) Social and Personality Development in Childhood. NOBA. Retrieved from 
https://nobaproject.com/modules/social-and-personality-development-in-childhood

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