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Discussion Discussion 1:  ONE COPY Answer the following questions 1. Define the role of the Systems Analysts versus the Business Analyst. 2. Define the S

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1. Define the role of the Systems Analysts versus the Business Analyst.
2. Define the S

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grammar System
s A

nalysis and D
esign

K
enneth E. K

endall
Julie E. K

endall
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GLOBAL
EDITION

GLOBAL
EDITION

This is a special edition of an established title widely used by colleges and
universities throughout the world. Pearson published this exclusive edition
for the benefit of students outside the United States and Canada. If you
purchased this book within the United States or Canada, you should be aware
that it has been imported without the approval of the Publisher or Author.

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The tenth edition of Systems Analysis and Design presents the latest systems
development methods, techniques, and tools in a clear, concise, and engag-
ing manner. Designed to help the reader visually capture a system, the book
demonstrates how meaningful information systems can be created through the
creative application of concepts and rules.

The book also presents the following pedagogical features that enable stu-
dents to apply key concepts to real-world situations:

• Consulting Opportunities are minicases that address and encourage in-depth
discussions of significant and emerging topics in information systems.

• Stylized visual aids such as conceptual diagrams, computer displays, and
paperforms are designed to aid students in understanding complex subject matter.

• HyperCase 2.10 is Web-based, interactive software that presents an original vir-
tual organization in a colorful, three-dimensional graphics environment that allows
students to immerse themselves in organizational life.

• HyperCase Experiences are challenging exercises in each chapter that help
students solve difficult organizational problems such as the development of new
systems, the merging of departments, the hiring of employees, security, ecommerce,
and disaster recovery planning.

Kenneth E. Kendall • Julie E. Kendall

Systems Analysis
and Design

TENTH EDITION

Kendall_10_1292281456_Final.indd 1 06/08/19 3:06 PM

1 SYSTEMS, ROLES, AND DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES
1.1 Healthy Hiring: Ecommerce Help Wanted 41

2 UNDERSTANDING AND MODELING ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEMS
2.1 The E in Vitamin E Stands for Ecommerce 59
2.2 Where There’s Carbon, There’s a Copy 78
2.3 Pyramid Power 79

3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT
3.1 The Sweetest Sound I’ve Ever Sipped 88
3.2 Veni, Vidi, Vendi, or, “I Came, I Saw, I Sold” 100
3.3 We’re Off to See the Wizards 104
3.4 Food for Thought 109
3.5 Goal Tending 126

4 INFORMATION GATHERING: INTERACTIVE METHODS
4.1 Strengthening Your Question Types 146
4.2 Skimming the Surface 149
4.3 A Systems Analyst, I Presume? 155
4.4 The Unbearable Questionnaire 159
4.5 Order in the Courts 162

5 INFORMATION GATHERING: UNOBTRUSIVE METHODS
5.1 Trapping a Sample 174
5.2 A Rose by Any Other Name…Or Quality, Not Quantities 176

6 AGILE MODELING, PROTOTYPING, AND SCRUM
6.1 Is Prototyping King? 195
6.2 Clearing the Way for Customer Links 198
6.3 To Hatch a Fish 204
6.4 This Prototype Is All Wet 206

7 USING DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS
7.1 There’s No Business Like Flow Business 249

8 ANALYZING SYSTEMS USING DATA DICTIONARIES
8.1 Want to Make It Big in the Theatre? Improve Your Diction(ary)! 267

9 PROCESS SPECIFICATIONS AND STRUCTURED DECISIONS
9.1 Kit Chen Kaboodle, Inc. 280
9.2 Kneading Structure 284
9.3 Saving a Cent on Citron Car Rental 289
9.4 A Tree for Free 293

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITIES

Kendall_10_1292281456_ifc_Final.indd 1 31/07/19 4:02 PM

10 OBJECT-ORIENTED SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN USING UML
10.1 Around the World in 80 Objects 302
10.2 Recycling the Programming Environment 312
10.3 Developing a Fine System That Was Long Overdue: Using Object-Oriented Analysis

for the Ruminski Public Library System 332
10.4 C-Shore++ 335

11 DESIGNING EFFECTIVE OUTPUT
11.1 Your Cage or Mine? 344
11.2 A Right Way, a Wrong Way, and a Subway 346
11.3 Should This Chart Be Barred? 349
11.4 Is Your Work a Grind? 357
11.5 A Field Day 362

12 DESIGNING EFFECTIVE INPUT
12.1 This Form May Be Hazardous to Your Health 388
12.2 Squeezin’ Isn’t Pleasin’ 389

13 DESIGNING DATABASES
13.1 Hitch Your Cleaning Cart to a Star 410
13.2 Storing Minerals for Health, Data for Mining 436
13.3 Losing Prospects 438

14 HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION AND UX DESIGN
14.1 School Spirit Comes in Many Sizes 453
14.2 I’d Rather Do It Myself 454
14.3 Don’t Slow Me Down 455
14.4 Waiting to Be Fed 466
14.5 When You Run A Marathon, It Helps to Know Where You’re Going 470
14.6 Hey, Look Me Over (Reprise) 477

15 DESIGNING ACCURATE DATA ENTRY PROCEDURES
15.1 It’s a Wilderness in Here 492
15.2 Catching a Summer Code 494
15.3 To Enter or Not to Enter: That Is the Question 501

16 QUALITY ASSURANCE AND IMPLEMENTATION
16.1 The Quality of MIS Is Not Strained 516
16.2 Write Is Right 521
16.3 Cramming for Your Systems Test 525
16.4 You Can Lead a Fish to Water…But You Can’t Make It Drink 536
16.5 The Sweet Smell of Success 543
16.6 Mopping Up with the New System 546

A01_KEND1452_10_GE_FM.indd 1 06/08/19 4:36 PM

Introductory MIS

Experiencing MIS, 8/e
Kroenke & Boyle ©2020

Using MIS, 10/e
Kroenke & Boyle ©2018

Management Information Systems, 16/e
Laudon & Laudon ©2020

Essentials of MIS, 13/e
Laudon & Laudon ©2019

Processes, Systems, and Information: An
Introduction to MIS, 3/e
McKinney & Kroenke ©2019

Information Systems Today, 8/e
Valacich & Schneider ©2018

Introduction to Information Systems, 3/e
Wallace ©2018

Database

Hands-on Database, 2/e
Conger ©2014

Modern Database Management, 13/e
Hoffer, Ramesh & Topi ©2020

Database Concepts, 8/e
Kroenke, Auer, Vandenberg & Yoder ©2018

Database Processing, 15/e
Kroenke, Auer, Vandenberg & Yoder ©2019

Systems Analysis and Design

Modern Systems Analysis and Design, 8/e
Hoffer, George & Valacich ©2017

Decision Support Systems

Business Intelligence, Analytics, and Data
Science, 4/e
Sharda, Delen & Turban ©2018

Business Intelligence and Analytics: Systems
for Decision Support, 10/e
Sharda, Delen & Turban ©2014

Data Communications & Networking

Applied Networking Labs, 2/e
Boyle ©2014

Digital Business Networks
Dooley ©2014

Business Data Networks and Security, 11/e
Panko & Panko ©2019

Electronic Commerce

E-commerce 2019: Business. Technology.
Society, 15/e
Laudon & Traver ©2020

Enterprise Resource Planning

Enterprise Systems for Management, 2/e
Motiwalla & Thompson ©2012

Project Management

Project Management: Process, Technology
and Practice
Vaidyanathan ©2013

OTHER MIS TITLES OF INTEREST

A00_KEND5554_10_SE_IFC.indd 1 07/12/17 3:30 pmA01_KEND1452_10_GE_FM.indd 2 06/08/19 4:36 PM

SYSTEMS
ANALYSIS

AND

DESIGN

A01_KEND1452_10_GE_FM.indd 3 06/08/19 4:36 PM

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Kenneth E. Kendall
RUTGERS UNIVERSITY

School of Business–Camden
Camden, New Jersey

Julie E. Kendall
RUTGERS UNIVERSITY

School of Business–Camden
Camden, New Jersey

SYSTEMS
ANALYSIS

AND

DESIGN

T E N T H E D I T I O N
G L O B A L E D I T I O N

Harlow, England • London • New York • Boston • San Francisco • Toronto • Sydney • Dubai • Singapore • Hong Kong
Tokyo • Seoul • Taipei • New Delhi • Cape Town • Sao Paulo • Mexico City • Madrid • Amsterdam • Munich • Paris • Milan

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Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

Authorized adaptation from the United States edition, entitled Systems Analysis and Design, 10th Edition, ISBN 978-0-13-478555-4, by
Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall, published by Pearson Education © 2019.

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by such owners.

ISBN 10: 1-292-28145-6
ISBN 13: 978-1-292-28145-2

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
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To the memory of Julia A. Kendall and Edward J. Kendall,
whose lifelong example of working

together will inspire us forever.

A01_KEND1452_10_GE_FM.indd 7 06/08/19 4:36 PM

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PART I SYSTEMS ANALYSIS FUNDAMENTALS
1 SYSTEMS, ROLES, AND DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES 39

2 UNDERSTANDING AND MODELING ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEMS 57

3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT 86

PART II INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS
4 INFORMATION GATHERING: INTERACTIVE METHODS 141

5 INFORMATION GATHERING: UNOBTRUSIVE METHODS 170

6 AGILE MODELING, PROTOTYPING, AND SCRUM 193

PART III THE ANALYSIS PROCESS
7 USING DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS 225

8 ANALYZING SYSTEMS USING DATA DICTIONARIES 255

9 PROCESS SPECIFICATIONS AND STRUCTURED DECISIONS 279

10 OBJECT-ORIENTED SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN USING UML 299

PART IV THE ESSENTIALS OF DESIGN
11 DESIGNING EFFECTIVE OUTPUT 339

12 DESIGNING EFFECTIVE INPUT 381

13 DESIGNING DATABASES 409

14 HUMAN–COMPUTER INTERACTION AND UX DESIGN 448

PART V QUALITY ASSURANCE AND IMPLEMENTATION
15 DESIGNING ACCURATE DATA ENTRY PROCEDURES 485

16 QUALITY ASSURANCE AND IMPLEMENTATION 512

GLOSSARY 553

ACRONYMS 561

INDEX 563

9

BRIEF CONTENTS

A01_KEND1452_10_GE_FM.indd 9 06/08/19 4:36 PM

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PART I SYSTEMS ANALYSIS FUNDAMENTALS 39

1 SYSTEMS, ROLES, AND DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES 39

Need for Systems Analysis and Design 40

Roles of a Systems Analyst 40
Systems Analyst as Consultant 40

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 1.1 Healthy Hiring: Ecommerce Help Wanted 41
Systems Analyst as Supporting Expert 41 / Systems Analyst as Agent of Change 41 /
Qualities of a Systems Analyst 42

The Systems Development Life Cycle 42
Identifying Problems, Opportunities, and Objectives 43 / Determining Human
Information Requirements 43 / Analyzing System Needs 44

MAC APPEAL 44
Designing the Recommended System 45 / Developing and Documenting Software 45 /
Testing and Maintaining the System 45 / Implementing and Evaluating the System 45 /
The Impact of Maintenance 46 / Using CASE Tools 47

The Agile Approach 48
Exploration 49 / Planning 49 / Iterations to the First Release 50 / Productionizing 50 /
Maintenance 50

Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design 50
Object-Oriented Similarities to SDLC 50

Choosing Which Systems Development Method to Use 52

Developing Open Source Software 53
Why Organizations Participate in Open Source Communities 53 / The Role of the Analyst
in Open Source Software 53

HYPERCASE EXPERIENCE 1 54
SUMMARY 54
KEYWORDS AND PHRASES 55
REVIEW QUESTIONS 55
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 56

2 UNDERSTANDING AND MODELING ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEMS 57

Organizations as Systems 58
Interrelatedness and Interdependence of Systems 58

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 2.1 The E in Vitamin E Stands for Ecommerce 59
Virtual Organizations and Virtual Teams 59 / Taking a Systems Perspective 60 /
Enterprise Systems: Viewing the Organization as a System 60

Depicting Systems Graphically 62
Systems and the Context-Level Data Flow Diagram 62 / Systems and the
Entity-Relationship Model 63

11

CONTENTS

A01_KEND1452_10_GE_FM.indd 11 06/08/19 4:36 PM

12 C O N T E N T S

Use Case Modeling 68

MAC APPEAL 69
Use Case Symbols 70 / Use Case Relationships 70 / Developing System Scope 71 /
Developing Use Case Diagrams 72 / Developing Use Case Scenarios 72 /
Use Case Levels 72 / Creating Use Case Descriptions 76 / Why Use Case
Diagrams Are Helpful 77

Levels of Management 77

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 2.2 Where There’s Carbon, There’s a Copy 78
Implications for Information Systems Development 78

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 2.3 Pyramid Power 79
Collaborative Design 79

Organizational Culture 80
Technology’s Impact on Culture 80

HYPERCASE EXPERIENCE 2 81
SUMMARY 82
KEYWORDS AND PHRASES 82
REVIEW QUESTIONS 82
PROBLEMS 83
GROUP PROJECTS 84
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 85

3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT 86

Project Initiation 87
Problems in an Organization 87 / Defining the Problem 87

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 3.1 The Sweetest Sound I’ve Ever Sipped 88
Selection of Projects 91

Determining Feasibility 92
Determining Whether It Is Possible 92 / Estimating Workloads 93

Ascertaining Hardware and Software Needs 94
Inventorying Computer Hardware 94 / Evaluating Computer Hardware for Purchase 96 /
Renting Time and Space in the Cloud 96 / Evaluation of Vendor Support for Computer
Hardware 98 / Understanding the Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) Option 98 / Creating
Custom Software 99

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 3.2 Veni, Vidi, Vendi, or, “I Came, I Saw, I Sold” 100
Purchasing COTS Software 100 / Using the Services of a SaaS Provider 101 / Evaluation
of Vendor Support for Software and SaaS 102

Identifying, Forecasting, and Comparing Costs and Benefits 103
Forecasting 103 / Identifying Benefits and Costs 103

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 3.3 We’re Off to See the Wizards 104
Comparing Costs and Benefits 105

Managing Time and Activities 106
The Work Breakdown Structure 106 / Time Estimation Techniques 107

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 3.4 Food for Thought 109

Project Scheduling 109
Using Gantt Charts for Project Scheduling 110 / Using PERT Diagrams 111

A01_KEND1452_10_GE_FM.indd 12 06/08/19 4:36 PM

C O N T E N T S 13

Controlling a Project 114
Estimating Costs and Preparing the Budget 114

MAC APPEAL 115
Managing Risk 116 / Managing Time Using Expediting 117 / Controlling Costs Using
Earned Value Management 119

Managing the Project Team 122
Assembling a Team 122 / Communication Strategies for Managing Teams 122

HYPERCASE EXPERIENCE 3.1 123
Setting Project Productivity Goals 124 / Motivating Project Team Members 124 / Managing
Ecommerce Projects 124 / Creating a Project Charter 125

The Systems Proposal 125
What to Include in a Systems Proposal 125

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 3.5 Goal Tending 126
Using Figures for Effective Communication 127

HYPERCASE EXPERIENCE 3.2 130
SUMMARY 130
KEYWORDS AND PHRASES 132
REVIEW QUESTIONS 132
PROBLEMS 133
GROUP PROJECTS 138
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 138

PART II INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS 141

4 INFORMATION GATHERING: INTERACTIVE METHODS 141

Interviewing 142
Five Steps in Interview Preparation 142 / Question Types 143 / Arranging Questions
in a Logical Sequence 145

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 4.1 Strengthening Your Question Types 146
Writing the Interview Report 148

Listening to Stories 148

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 4.2 Skimming the Surface 149
Stories Are Made Up of Elements 149 / Reasons for Telling Stories 151

Joint Application Design 151
Conditions That Support the Use of JAD 152 / Who Is Involved? 152 / Where to Hold JAD
Meetings 152

HYPERCASE EXPERIENCE 4.1 153
Accomplishing a Structured Analysis of Project Activities 153 / Potential Benefits of Using
JAD in Place of Traditional Interviewing 154 / Potential Drawbacks of Using JAD 154

Using Questionnaires 154

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 4.3 A Systems Analyst, I Presume? 155
Planning for the Use of Questionnaires 155 / Writing Questions 155

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 4.4 The Unbearable Questionnaire 159
Designing Questionnaires 160 / Administering Questionnaires 161

A01_KEND1452_10_GE_FM.indd 13 06/08/19 4:36 PM

14 C O N T E N T S

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 4.5 Order in the Courts 162

HYPERCASE EXPERIENCE 4.2 163
SUMMARY 163
KEYWORDS AND PHRASES 164
REVIEW QUESTIONS 165
PROBLEMS 165
GROUP PROJECTS 168
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 169

5 INFORMATION GATHERING: UNOBTRUSIVE METHODS 170

Sampling 171
The Need for Sampling 171 / Sampling Design 171 / The Sample Size Decision 173

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 5.1 Trapping a Sample 174

Analyzing Quantitative Documents 175
Systematically Examining Qualitative Documents 175

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 5.2 A Rose by Any Other Name . . . Or Quality, Not Quantities 176

Analyzing Qualitative Documents 179
Systematically Examining Qualitative Documents 179

HYPERCASE EXPERIENCE 5.1 180

Using Text Analytics 181

Observing a Decision Maker’s Behavior 182
Observing a Typical Manager’s Decision-Making Activities 183

Observing the Physical Environment 184
Structured Observation of the Environment (STROBE) 184

MAC APPEAL 186
Applying STROBE 186

SUMMARY 187

HYPERCASE EXPERIENCE 5.2 188
KEYWORDS AND PHRASES 189
REVIEW QUESTIONS 189
PROBLEMS 189
GROUP PROJECTS 191
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 191

6 AGILE MODELING, PROTOTYPING, AND SCRUM 193

Prototyping 194
Kinds of Prototypes 194

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 6.1 Is Prototyping King? 195
The Users’ Role in Prototyping 196

Agile Modeling 196
Values and Principles of Agile Modeling 196

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 6.2 Clearing the Way for Customer Links 198
Activities, Resources, and Practices of Agile Modeling 199 / The Agile Development
Process 203

A01_KEND1452_10_GE_FM.indd 14 06/08/19 4:36 PM

C O N T E N T S 15

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 6.3 To Hatch a Fish 204

Scrum 205

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 6.4 This Prototype Is All Wet 206
Roles Played in Scrum 206 / The Product Backlog 207 / The Sprint Cycle 207 /
Other Unique Scrum Features 208 / Kanban 210 / Scrum Advantages and
Disadvantages 211

DevOps: A Cultural Shift for App Development 212

Comparing Agile Modeling and Structured Methods 213
Lessons Learned from Agile Modeling 213 / Improving Efficiency in Knowledge
Work: SDLC versus Agile 214

MAC APPEAL 216
Risks Inherent in Organizational Innovation 218

HYPERCASE EXPERIENCE 6 220
SUMMARY 220
KEYWORDS AND PHRASES 221
REVIEW QUESTIONS 221
PROBLEMS 222
GROUP PROJECTS 223
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 224

PART III THE ANALYSIS PROCESS 225

7 USING DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS 225

The Data Flow Approach to Human Requirements Determination 226
Conventions Used in Data Flow Diagrams 226

Developing Data Flow Diagrams 227
Creating the Context Diagram 227 / Drawing Diagram 0 (The Next Level) 228 /
Creating Child Diagrams (More Detailed Levels) 230 / Checking Diagrams for Errors 230

Logical and Physical Data Flow Diagrams 232
Developing Logical Data Flow Diagrams 235 / Developing Physical Data Flow
Diagrams 236 / Partitioning Data Flow Diagrams 238

A Data Flow Diagram Example 240
Developing the List of Business Activities 241 / Creating a Context-Level Data Flow
Diagram 241 / Drawing Diagram 0 241 / Creating a Child Diagram 242 / Creating a
Physical Data Flow Diagram from the Logical DFD 242 / Partitioning the Physical
DFD 244

Partitioning Websites 246

Communicating Using Data Flow Diagrams 247

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 7.1 There’s No Business Like Flow Business 249

HYPERCASE EXPERIENCE 7 250
SUMMARY 250
KEYWORDS AND PHRASES 251
REVIEW QUESTIONS 251
PROBLEMS 252
GROUP PROJECTS 253
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 254

A01_KEND1452_10_GE_FM.indd 15 06/08/19 4:36 PM

16 C O N T E N T S

8 ANALYZING SYSTEMS USING DATA DICTIONARIES 255

The Data Dictionary 256
Need for Understanding the Data Dictionary 256

The Data Repository 256
Defining the Data Flows 257 / Describing Data Structures 259 / Logical and Physical
Data Structures 259 / Data Elements 261 / Data Stores 264

Creating a Data Dictionary 265
Analyzing Input and Output 265 / Developing Data Stores 266

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 8.1 Want to Make It Big in the Theatre? Improve Your
Diction(ary)! 267

Using a Data Dictionary 268
Using Data Dictionaries to Create XML 270 / XML Document Type Definitions 272 /
XML Schemas 273

HYPERCASE EXPERIENCE 8 274
SUMMARY 274
KEYWORDS AND PHRASES 275
REVIEW QUESTIONS 275
PROBLEMS 276
GROUP PROJECTS 278
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 278

9 PROCESS SPECIFICATIONS AND STRUCTURED DECISIONS 279

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 9.1 Kit Chen Kaboodle, Inc. 280

Overview of Process Specifications 280
Process Specification Format 281

Structured English 282
Writing Structured English 282

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 9.2 Kneading Structure 284
Data Dictionary and Process Specifications 285

Decision Tables 286
Developing Decision Tables 288

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 9.3 Saving a Cent on Citron Car Rental 289
Checking for Completeness and Accuracy 290

Decision Trees 292
Drawing Decision Trees 292

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 9.4 A Tree for Free 293

Choosing a Structured Decision Analysis Technique 294

SUMMARY 294

HYPERCASE EXPERIENCE 9 295
KEYWORDS AND PHRASES 295
REVIEW QUESTIONS 295
PROBLEMS 295
GROUP PROJECTS 297
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 298

A01_KEND1452_10_GE_FM.indd 16 06/08/19 4:36 PM

C O N T E N T S 17

10 OBJECT-ORIENTED SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN USING UML 299

Object-Oriented Concepts 300
Objects 300 / Classes 300 / Inheritance 301

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 10.1 Around the World in 80 Objects 302

CRC Cards and Object Think 302
Interacting During a CRC Session 304

Unified Modeling Language (UML) Concepts and Diagrams 304

Use Case Modeling 307

Activity Diagrams 309
Creating Activity Diagrams 311

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 10.2 Recycling the Programming Environment 312
Repository Entries for an Activity Diagram 312

Sequence and Communication Diagrams 313
Sequence Diagrams 313 / Communication Diagrams 315

Class Diagrams 316
Method Overloading 317 / Types of Classes 317 / Defining Messages and Methods 318

Enhancing Sequence Diagrams 318
A Class Example for the Web 319 / Presentation, Business, and Persistence Layers in
Sequence Diagrams 321

Enhancing Class Diagrams 321
Relationships 322 / Generalization/Specialization (Gen/Spec) Diagrams 325

Statechart Diagrams 328
A State Transition Example 329

Packages and Other UML Artifacts 330

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 10.3 Developing a Fine System That Was Long Overdue:
Using Object-Oriented Analysis for the Ruminski Public Library System 332

Putting UML to Work 332

The Importance of Using UML for Modeling 334

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 10.4 C-Shore++ 335
SUMMARY 335

HYPERCASE EXPERIENCE 10 336
KEYWORDS AND PHRASES 336
REVIEW QUESTIONS 337
PROBLEMS 337
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 338

PART IV THE ESSENTIALS OF DESIGN 339

11 DESIGNING EFFECTIVE OUTPUT 339

Output Design Objectives 340
Designing Output to Serve the Intended Purpose 340 / Designing Output to Fit the
User 340 / Delivering the Appropriate Quantity of Output 340 / Making Sure the Output
Is Where It Is Needed 340 / Providing Output on Time 340 / Choosing the Right Output
Method 341

A01_KEND1452_10_GE_FM.indd 17 06/08/19 4:36 PM

18 C O N T E N T S

Relating Output Content to Output Method 341
Output Technologies 341 / Factors to Consider When Choosing Output
Technology 341

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 11.1 Your Cage or Mine? 344

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 11.2 A Right Way, a Wrong Way, and a Subway 346

Realizing How Output Bias Affects Users 347
Recognizing Bias in the Way Output Is Used 347 / Avoiding Bias in the Design of
Output 348

Designing Printed Output 348

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 11.3 Should This Chart Be Barred? 349

Designing Output for Displays 350
Guidelines for Display Design 350 / Using Graphical Output in Screen Design 351 /
Dashboards 351 / Infographics 353

Designing a Website 354
Responsive Web Design 355 / Flat Web Design 355 / General Guidelines for Designing
Websites 356

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 11.4 Is Your Work a Grind? 357
Specific Guidelines for Website Design 358

MAC APPEAL 360

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 11.5 A Field Day 362

Web 2.0 Technologies 362

Social Media Design 363
Guidelines for Social Media Design 364

Designing Apps for Smartphones and Tablets 365
Set Up a Developer Account 366 / Choose a Development Process 366 / Be an
Original 366 / Determine How You Will Price the App 366 / Follow the Rules 367 / Design
Your Icon 367 / Choose an Appropriate Name for the App 367 / Design for a Variety of
Devices 367 / Design the Output for the App 368 / Design the Output a Second Time for a
Different Orientation 369 / Share a Prototype of Your Work 369 / Design the App’s Logic
369 / Design Movement 370 / Create the User Interface Using Gestures 370 / Protect Your
Intellectual Property 370 / Market Your App 371

Output Production and XML 371
Ajax 373

HYPERCASE EXPERIENCE 11 374
SUMMARY 374
KEYWORDS AND PHRASES 375
REVIEW QUESTIONS 375
PROBLEMS 376
GROUP PROJECTS 379
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 380

12 DESIGNING EFFECTIVE INPUT 381

Good Form Design 382
Making Forms Easy to Fill In 382 / Meeting the Intended Purpose 385 / Ensuring Accurate
Completion 385 / Keeping Forms Attractive 385 / Controlling Business Forms 385

A01_KEND1452_10_GE_FM.indd 18 06/08/19 4:36 PM

C O N T E N T S 19

Good Display and Web Forms Design 386
Keeping the Display Simple 386 / Keeping the Display Consistent 387 / Facilitating
Movement 387 / Designing an Attractive and Pleasing Display 387 / Using Icons in
Display Design 387

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 12.1 This Form May Be Hazardous to Your Health 388

CONSULTING OPPORTUNITY 12.2 Squeezin’ Isn’t Pleasin’ 389
Graphical User Interface Design 389 / Form Controls and Values 392 / Hidden Fields 392 /
Event-Response Charts 393 / Dynamic Web Pages 395 / Three-Dimensional Web Pages 395 /
Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) 397

MAC APPEAL 399
Using Color in Display Design 399

Website Design 400
SUMMARY 402

HYPERCASE EXPERIENCE 12 403
KEYWORDS AND PHRASES 404
REVIEW QUESTIONS 404
PROBLEMS 405
GROUP …

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