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Introduction Comment by Chris Martinez: You need an introduction to your study. Think of it as a background, current situation, or setting the table for your problem, purpose, and question you wan to explore

Terrorism has become a significant issue in the United States since the 2001 attack (Wright, 2016). Terrorism and religion have been connected for as long as human history can be traced. Civilizations and empires in ancient times are perfect examples of true extremist believers who have engaged in wars to defend, promote, and spread their faith. Rink and Sharma (2016) asserted that the contemporary era is witnessing escalating religious terrorism in its frequency, the scale of violence, and global reach. Indeed, previous studies show that religious radicalization is the genesis of violence justification (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The choice of target is influenced by existing and loose interpretations of religious doctrine or based on defending one’s religious group. Religious radicalization is globalized, unlike ethnic radicalization, and involves sophisticated networks, making it challenging to tackle the militia groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The United States is not immune to terrorism resulting from religious radicalization. Some authors have found a relationship between religious radicalization and individual-level psychological trauma related to social relations and process-oriented factors (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Comment by Chris Martinez: This is an improvement

A report published by the Center for Strategic and International studies indicated that out of the 893 terror incidents analyzed by 1994 and 2020, 15.6% were committed by religious terrorists (Jones, 2022). The same data showed that religious terrorism significantly increased from 2015 to 2019 (Jones, 2022). Religious terrorism also results in significant fatalities across the United States (Jones, 2022). Considering the recent growth and increase in the number of radicalized youths by their religions, it is necessary to conduct studies that will examine the causes of radicalization and why many people are embracing religious radicalization. Therefore, the research will focus on domestic terrorism with particular attention to religious radicalization, which supports extreme views, that prompt people to commit terrorist activities.

Statement of the Problem Comment by Chris Martinez: PROBLEM
A problem statement is a broad overview of specific questions that will be addressed in a given area of research. It outlines the description of the issue(s), includes a vision, suggests the method(s) used to solve the problem

Presently, the world is experiencing many domestic terrorism incidents connected to religious radicalization. However, governments have not implemented the right interventions and policies to curb religious radicalization, especially among the Muslim communities. The problem that will be investigated in this study is to explore how the government of the United States, in particular, can combat religious radicalization and eliminate domestic terrorism resulting from radicalization. According to Rogers et al. (2007), radicalized people are likely to inflict terror on the masses and destroy national infrastructures as one way of achieving their terrorism goals. Domestic terrorism encompasses violence against the citizens or the national infrastructure. As the number of radicalized youths and people increases, domestic terrorism incidents are likely to increase. For this reason, the authorities have to devise ways to combat religious radicalization in America and worldwide (Smith, 2021). The problem is that many of the policies and interventions implemented in America are perceived to be discriminatory. For this reason, they are not effective in combating religious radicalization (Shapiro & Maras, 2018). Through the literature review and evaluation of data and recommendations from different government agencies, the current study will seek to solve the problem by providing advice that can be implemented to combat religious radicalization. This paper presents a research proposal on the perspectives of domestic terrorism through religious radicalization. Comment by Chris Martinez: Says who? Cite this
Dii you look at the document I sent you on constructing a problem statement Comment by Chris Martinez: This should be the first sentence and needs to be narrower.
Comment by Chris Martinez: I will send you a document on constructing your problem statement

Purpose Statement

The current qualitative research study aims to investigate religious radicalization motivating factors. Through a literature review and analysis of other documents on domestic terrorism related to religious radicalization, the study will understand why many youths are opting for radicalization. The study will also provide recommendations on how the government can combat religious radicalization and reduce domestic terrorism. Comment by Chris Martinez: Address this in your next submission or we cannot move forward Comment by Chris Martinez: You have not address this Comment by Chris Martinez: The purpose of the qualitative case study research is to explore…..
Why are you researching the topic

Research Question

To better understand the significance of radicalization to terrorism, this research develops research questions that will help to answer some of the concerns about domestic terrorism (Smith, 2021). Comment by Chris Martinez: Alignment needed Comment by Chris Martinez: You do not have alignment with problem, purpose, and questions

1. What factors enhance youths’ involvement in religious radicalization in the United States?

1. How does religious radicalization contribute to the current rising number of domestic terrorism incidents in the United States?

1. What measures can the United States implement through its different institutions, agencies, and government branches to combat religious radicalization?

Literature Review

Different scholars and researchers have utilized literature reviews to investigate social issues for many years. Qualitative studies give researchers leeway of using literature or previously published studies to solve prevailing problems on similar subjects. According to Wilner and Dubouloz (2010), terrorism is a global problem affecting developed, developing, and non-developing countries. European countries and the United States have been affected by terrorist activities both external and homegrown since the dawn of the 21st century (Venkatraman, 2007; Jones, 2022; Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). The literature review explores the common themes of terrorism radicalization and the various theories and conceptual frameworks applied to explain the current trends in violence. The articles included in the literature review are peer-reviewed. The findings will form a basis for a further research study. Comment by Chris Martinez: Says who? Cite this Comment by Chris Martinez: Please address each track change Comment by Chris Martinez: Like this…well done Comment by Chris Martinez: explore

Religious Terrorism Comment by Chris Martinez: use sub sections to accentuate themes

Religious terrorism is common today because of radicalization in the house of worship. Many religious groupings have resolved to religious radicalization as one way of advancing and procuring followers today. According to Rink and Sharma (2016), most scholars associate religious terrorism with psychological trauma, which occurs in their lives as children, youths, or adults (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Rink and Sharma (2016) The authors conducted a qualitative study in Kenya to understand compelling reasons that pushed youth to join religious terror groups, particularly Al-Shabaab. Through interviews, they found that exposure to violence in adulthood and constrained social relationships prominently prompted them to religious radicalization. Similar sentiments were shared by Rogers et al. (2007), who noted that many youths opt for radicalization because they are exposed to strain social relationships in society. Interaction with radical groups or individuals through social media platforms or physically also contributed to participants’ joining radical groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Other scholars also found an association between religion, social relations theory, and rational choice theory. Religious fundamentalism also contributes to domestic terrorism (Rogers et al., 2007). In the United States, Christians are guided by a sense of patriotism and a rising immigrant population. At the same time, the Muslims are outraged by what they perceive as encroachment of their religious values by Western cultures (Rogers et al., 2007). Thus, the fundamentalism views held by each side can form a basis for religious extremism leading to religious radicalization and subsequent domestic terrorism.

Religious Radicalization and Strain Theory

Scholars have also used the social learning theory to investigate the spread of religious radicalization and terrorism in the United States. Shapiro & Maras (2018) studied how women in the United States were radicalized and joined Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terror groups through the social learning theory. Data used was obtained from open-source court cases. The study involved thirty-one participants in assessing how they became radicalized and extremists. They discovered that the women joined terror groups through due social interactions with radicalized individuals (Shapiro & Maras, 2018). Most religious terrorist acts have been associated with the Islamic religion. The connection between Islamic faith and violence is due to extreme understanding of the Quran and the influence of Islamic Revivalism (Venkatraman, 2007). Consequently, intrinsic sociological and psychological factors compel the Muslim followers to violence as a form of defending their religion and extending it (Venkatraman, 2007). Geopolitical factors influence religious radicalization and the motivation to join terror groups. Indeed, it is clear from the studies mentioned above that the tenets of strain theory can be used to explain why many youths opt for religious radicalization. Comment by Chris Martinez: spell out all acronyms first time

Islam and Religious Radicalization

It is no news for the Islamic religion to be associated with religious radicalization and terrorism (Wright, 2016). The question that many scholars seeking to understand is why is Islam associated with terrorism? Scholars have researched why most religious terrorism is associated with the Islamic religion. According to Rogers et al. (2007), one of the reasons is that Muslims show high self-reported fundamentalism compared to adherents of other religions such as Christians. Indeed, most Muslims have strong resilience for their religion, and they will do anything to protect the values of their religion. Religious fundamentalism is where religious followers have fundamental beliefs. Wright (2012) noted that Muslims show a high religious commitment to protecting their religious beliefs compared to other religions. Consequently, they are ready to defend their religion, including violence. The current political landscape, driven by Western ideologies, contradicts Islamic believers’ self-concept and acts as a “push” factor to religious radicalization and terrorism. Whereas it is fundamental to commit to one’s religious beliefs, studies have shown that some Islamic social institutions are extreme, and their teachings radicalize their followers. The Islamic religion is more homogenous than other religions, such as Christians, characterized by many denominations with different beliefs (Wright, 2016). Thus, religious terrorism can be understood by assessing religious-specific factors.

Domestic Terrorism and Behavioral Change

Whereas domestic terrorism has been highly associated with The behavioral change approach is also used to explain the spread of religious terrorism, and it can be addressed. The United States, like Europe, has witnessed a growing number of domestic terrorisms resulting from religious beliefs. According to the perpetrators, killing other people to defend one’s religion is (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). Subsequently, any religious terrorism is done with reasons, protecting or expanding religious beliefs. The perpetrators are emotionally and mentally motivated with a set of beliefs to orchestrate violence against those they believe oppose their faith. There are many varied issues for Islamic violence that can prompt them to kill other individuals (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). A lack of political homogeneity also catalyzes the radicalization process leading to terrorism. People unwilling to fit into the broader political society align themselves with smaller social groups and form a network that grows to homegrown terror groups in the United States (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010).

Current studies have explored numerous issues explaining domestic violence’s emergence, spread, and occurrence resulting from religious radicalization. Psychosocial trauma and complicated interpersonal relations are some reasons that lead to religious radicalization and violence (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Another cause of violence based on the literature review is extreme interpretations of the Quran that ‘pushes” believers to become extremists. Also, the existing social media platforms act as a ground for religious radicalization and extremist influence (Venkatraman, 2007). The authors use various theories to explain the occurrence and spread of domestic violence and religious radicalization. The ideas discussed include social relations theory, social learning theory, behavioral change theory, and rational choice theory. Most of the studies are qualitative and quantitative, and thus, there is a need for policy evaluation studies to understand how they relate to terrorism. Again, none of the studies focuses on the strain theory, which can explain why terrorism occurs and the reasons for religious radicalization among various groups (Venkatraman, 2007). Therefore, the focus of the study will be to explore the influence of strain theory on domestic terrorist radicalization.

Theoretical Framework Comment by Chris Martinez: A theoretical framework consists of concepts, together with their definitions, and existing theory/theories that are used for your particular study. The theoretical framework must demonstrate an understanding of theories and concepts that are relevant to the topic of your  research paper and that will relate it to the broader fields of knowledge in the class you are taking.
The theoretical framework is not something that is found readily available in the literature. You must review course readings and pertinent research literature for theories and analytic models that are relevant to the research problem you are investigating. The selection of a theory should depend on its appropriateness, ease of application, and explanatory power.
The theoretical framework strengthens the study in the following ways.
An explicit statement of  theoretical assumptions permits the reader to evaluate them critically.
The theoretical framework connects the researcher to existing knowledge. Guided by a relevant theory, you are given a basis for your hypotheses and choice of research methods.
Articulating the theoretical assumptions of a research study forces you to address questions of why and how. It permits you to move from simply describing a phenomenon observed to generalizing about various aspects of that phenomenon.
Having a theory helps you to identify the limits to those generalizations. A theoretical framework specifies which key variables influence a phenomenon of interest. It alerts you to examine how those key variables might differ and under what circumstances.

Considering the nature of this study’s problem that needs to be solved, the study will use the strain theory. Cambridge dictionary defines strain as a force that compels someone to do something (Cambridge Dictionary, n.d). According to Agnew (1999), the tenets of strain theory best explain religious radicalization as a form of domestic terrorism because they explain why individuals opt to join radicalization programs. Proponents of the strain theory purport that people commit crimes because they experience strain (a point) that upsets them, causing a rebellion. Agnew (1999) researched and expanded on the earlier version of the strain theory. He found that strain could explain the differences in severe crimes between various communities. He added to forms of strain that could culminate into rebellion or crimes. Indeed, the tenets of strain theory connect with concepts infused in the study of radicalization. A study done by Agnew (1999) concluded that many innocent people, especially the youths, join radical religious groups because they lack something in life that can be equated to strain in life. One category of strain prevents people from achieving their valued goals, while the second category takes away things people value (Agnew, 1999). Some strain causes are poor health conditions since they block individuals’ pathways towards some goals (Stogner & Gibson, 2010). Strain may result from the want of money, respect, power, and autonomy (Merton, n.d). Strain theory is relevant in studying radicalization and domestic terrorism because it explains some of the strain factors people face, similar to why people join radicalized groups or opt for radicalization and get involved in domestic violence. Comment by Chris Martinez: theory Comment by Chris Martinez: how will you tie in this theory with your research topic and why?

According to the study done by Jones (2022, March 7), existing studies have tackled the issue of domestic terrorism radicalization in different ways. Some believe that domestic terrorism results from interactions with the terrorists through various media. In contrast, others believe that terrorism results from psychosocial trauma and complicated social relations compel the victims to join and undertake terrorism activities (Jones, 2022, March 7). Religious radicalization is one way through which people are made to become terrorists. Radicalized youths, especially Muslims, believe that killing other people will be forgiven and rewarded. Islamic extremism, the most common form of religious terrorism, is influenced by Quran extreme interpretations (Venkatraman, 2007). These are some ways that enhance strain among the radicalized youth and push them to commit terror crimes in their countries. The strain theory will help understand how various themes impact domestic terrorism in the United States. Some issues to consider are the foreign policies, government interference into internal matters in other countries, and social pressures towards specific groups, which prompt rebellion. Comment by Chris Martinez: By? Comment by Chris Martinez: Who?

Research Design Comment by Chris Martinez: DESIGN
The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data.
 

The current qualitative research will focus on the common themes in domestic radicalization to terrorism cases. Further, the research will assess the influence of strain theory on domestic terrorism radicalization. The purpose of the study will be to advance knowledge on the “real” cause of terrorism and address them appropriately. The study will be a program evaluation of government interventions or policies both within the United States and outside to determine their impacts. After the 2001 attacks, the United States settled on military invasions to Muslim countries to deal with militia groups and end terrorism. However, since sending troops to Afghanistan, terrorists have formed novel militia groups and expanded to other parts of the world, including Africa, North America, and Europe. Terrorism has become more localized and domestic (Drevon & Khalifa, 2021). Because of such developments, the researcher will evaluate American policies and government opinions on Islamic religion to determine if these factors act as strains that prompt the emergence of more terrorism activities domestically. Comment by Chris Martinez: The researcher will

Policy evaluation involves gathering data and analyses to assess policy outcomes or processes. There are various reasons for choosing policy evaluation research over other quantitative and qualitative methodologies. First, countering terrorism is an issue that involves government and its agencies and not individuals. Therefore, it is easier to assess how government policies contribute towards ending or expanding terrorism networks both within and outside the United States (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). Some groups may perceive some policies as discriminatory or limiting some religious groups from their fundamental beliefs, which is one of the strains that lead to rebellion.

Secondly, policy evaluation promotes public accountability and learning. Terrorism causes loss of lives, permanent injuries, economic turmoil, and instability in various parts of the world. Government response to terrorism should be accurate and well-thought. Thus, by assessing the different types of terrorism-related policies, the government could be more accountable for their interventions when dealing with terrorists (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). Thirdly, the program evaluation will bolster understanding of existing policies’ necessity, efficiency, and validity. Some governmental policies adopted to eliminate terrorism are not always practical. Comment by Chris Martinez: Can another researcher duplicate your study based on your decription in this section?

Other research methods that could be applied in the study are qualitative and quantitative approaches. However, both have not been used in the study for various reasons. First, many qualitative and quantitative studies exist on terrorism and causal factors. Also, it will be challenging to track radicalized individuals to participate in the study due to the complexity and nature of the study topic. Thus, policy evaluation is the best alternative since it is easier to access government records outlining its policies.

The three major types of evaluation are process, impact, and process. The study will adopt an outcome-based evaluation approach. Outcome analysis is based on the long-term goals of the project (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). The United States government had a long-term goal of ending terrorism by dealing with terrorists and terror groups through military invasion (Drevon & Khalifa, 2016). The reason for choosing outcome-based assessment is to determine whether the government’s long-term goals of ending terrorism have been met through its policies. The failure of these policies will show existing strains that lead to sustained terrorism that evolve to become homegrown. The reason for not using impact-based evaluation is its focus on short-term goals. Thus, while short-term objectives can point are effective, they are not always the same as the long-term goals, which are most vital. Lastly, process-based policy evaluation is not used because the focus is not on implementation procedures but outcomes (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). These outcomes will be vital in relating strain theory and domestic terrorism.

Comment by Chris Martinez: Follow APA 7th edition or your university graduate template on sub headings

Reference List Comment by Chris Martinez: You have 4 of 5 peered reviewed journal articles on this list this is a good start…strive for 80 percent.
Also, each reference needs to be cited in the document or removed. Continue to add references exponentially as your research grows…heavily cite your document while synthesizing what others have said.
Look at APA 7th edition…remove the word “list”

Agnew, R. (1999). A general strain theory of community differences in crime rates. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 36(2), 123–155.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427899036002001

Drevon, J., & Khalifa, D. (2021, June 16). They are exploiting disorder: Al-Qaeda and the Islamic state. Crisis Group. Retrieved February 24, 2022, from
https://www.crisisgroup.org/global/exploiting-disorder-al-qaeda-and-islamic-state

Jones, S. G. (2022, March 7). The escalating terrorism problem in the United States. The Escalating Terrorism Problem in the United States | Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved February 23, 2022, from
https://www.csis.org/analysis/escalating-terrorism-problem-united-states

Merton, R. K. (n.d.). Crime causation: Sociological theories – strain theory. Strain Theory – Delinquency, People, Money, and Engage – JRank Articles. Retrieved February 24, 2022, from
https://law.jrank.org/pages/814/Crime-Causation-Sociological-Theories-Strain-theory.html

My-Peer Toolkit. MyPeer Toolkit RSS2. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2022, from
https://mypeer.org.au/monitoring-evaluation/types-of-evaluation/

Rink, A., & Sharma, K. (2016). The determinants of religious radicalization. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 62(6), 1229–1261.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002716678986

Rogers, M. B., Loewenthal, K. M., Lewis, C. A., Amlôt, R., Cinnirella, M., & Ansari, H. (2007). The role of religious fundamentalism in terrorist violence: A Social Psychological Analysis. International Review of Psychiatry, 19(3), 253–262.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09540260701349399

Shapiro, L. R., & Maras, M.-H. (2018). Women’s radicalization to religious terrorism: An examination of isis cases in the United States. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 42(1-2), 88–119.
https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610x.2018.1513694

Stogner, J., & Gibson, C. L. (2010). Healthy, wealthy, and wise: Incorporating health issues as a source of strain in Agnew’s general strain theory. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(6), 1150–1159.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.09.003

Strain. Cambridge Dictionary. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2022, from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/strain

Venkatraman, A. (2007). Religious basis for Islamic terrorism: The Quran and its interpretations. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30(3), 229–248.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10576100600781612

Wilner, A. S., & Dubouloz, C.-J. (2010). Homegrown terrorism and transformative learning: An interdisciplinary approach to understanding radicalization. Global Change, Peace & Security, 22(1), 33–51.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14781150903487956

Wright, J. D. (2016). Why is Contemporary Religious Terrorism Predominantly Linked to Islam? Four Possible Psychosocial Factors. Perspectives on Terrorism, 10(1), 19–31

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