Help Running head: SHORT TITLE OF PAPER (<= 50 CHARACTERS) 2 Topic: Institutional Racism and its Effect on the Soci

Help Running head: SHORT TITLE OF PAPER (<= 50 CHARACTERS) 2 Topic: Institutional Racism and its Effect on the Soci

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Topic: Institutional Racism and its Effect on the Society (Interculturalism of Black and white in United State of America) The term paper needs to be a critical cross-cultural study with a focus on intercultural communication. Choose two cultures, preferably one of which you haven’t covered in your podcast or webinar, and compare them through any aspect covered in this course within intercultural communication. For example, you could compare indulgence and intercultural communication in the French and Russian cultures. Your paper needs to be approximately 2500 words in length, following APA formatting, with at least 7 credible sources. The maximum number of sources is 10. You do not need to do any primary research or collect data for this paper.  


Author (s)

Author’s (s’) Department of Study



Your abstract should be one paragraph and should not exceed 100 words. It is a summary of the most important elements of your paper. All numbers in the abstract, except those beginning a sentence, should be typed as digits rather than words. To count the number of words in this paragraph, select the paragraph, and on the Tools menu click Word Count. Do not write the abstract before you finish the whole paper. Remember that the abstract is a summary of your paper. Notice that an abstract should appear on a separate page.

Keywords: give a list of 5 key words (or short phrases) that help identify the paper.


Begin your paper with an introduction to talk about your topic, why you think it’s important, what made you interested in it, and end with your thesis statement which is you main argument or claim about the topic (the aspect you are trying to prove or disprove through you data). In other words, you will need to provide a brief account of your study (or case study) and a few in-text citations to support your reasoning. Avoid giving too many details from the works you are citing; details such as these (if necessary) go into the literature review section. Avoid turning this section into a literature review as introductions are ‘backgrounds’ to your paper, not an in-depth discussion of what other researchers have said or found to support or refute the idea. Make sure that your introduction includes your purpose or problem and that you outline in general terms what you’re aiming for.

This section is approximately 1 page minimum to 2 pages maximum. Make sure your use the active and passive voice in the appropriate places; the active voice should be used more often than the passive. This template is formatted according to APA Style guidelines, with one inch top, bottom, left, and right margins; it is double-spaced, aligned, flushed left, and the paragraphs are indented 5-7 spaces. Arial or Calibri font in 12 point are my preferred font format, so please consider using them to make reading easier for me. Have a look at the papers on eLearn for examples of how the paragraphs are formatted and structured.

Literature Review

This is where you put most of your in-text citations, your secondary research. You will need a minimum of seven sources in your reference list. Whether you use these sources in the introduction and repeat the same sources here is not an issue; an issue would be repeating the exact same argument from these sources. Make sure your arguments are sound and that you are choosing sources that support your rationale. This section is approximately 2 pages minimum to 3 pages maximum. You can use sub-sections in this section. See Appendix A for how to format headings for sections and sub-sections.


Sources must be documented by citing the authors and dates of publication, which are available for most sources. When the name of the author of a source is part of the sentence structure, i.e. the subject of the sentence, the year of the publication appears in parenthesis following the author’s surname (family name), for example, Al-Musalli (2014) argues that …etc. On the other hand, when the author of a source is not part of the formal structure of the sentence, both the author and year of publication appear in parentheses; sources are separated by a semicolons, for example, plagiarism is idea theft (Smith & Jones, 2001, p. 8; Al-Musalli, 2021, pp. 3-6). Use the Purdue APA Style Guide on eLearn. APA style “will result in a favorable impression on your readers” (Smith, 2001).

When a source that has two authors is cited, both authors are cited every time. If there are six or more authors to be cited, use the first author’s surname followed by “et al.” the first and each subsequent time it is cited. When a direct quotation is used, always include the author, year, and page number as part of the citation. Al-Musalli (2014) states, “A quotation of fewer than 40 words should be enclosed in double quotation marks and incorporated into the formal structure of the sentence within the paragraph” (p. 23). However, she stresses that,

A longer quote of 40 or more words (which is a bit like this one) should appear (without quotation marks) in block format, indented five spaces from the margins. Bla bla la bla la bla la la bla bla la la (p.23).

After you report what a source says, especially when you are giving a quotation, you must give a page number (or numbers, pp. 3-8) before the end of the sentence in which you are citing; nonetheless, if the argument you are giving talks about the general conclusion or general idea of what the source is saying (the general claim or conclusion that is everywhere in the source rather than on a specific page), you don’t need a page number. Please see the Purdue APA Style Guide on eLearn for more on this and how to cite sources without page numbers, such as (some) online sources.

Al-Musalli (2014) maintains that if the idea you are giving is presented in an entire book rather than on a certain page of that book, you do not need page numbers (pp. 100-101). This sentence means that Al-Musalli discussed this idea on pages 100-101 of her (2014) publication. We use (pp. because it is more than one page). The same applies to the citations of authors that are not part of the formal structure of the sentence, stated above, for example, (Smith & Jones, 2001, p. 3; Anderson, Charles, & Johnson, 2003, pp. 4-5).


This is where you talk about how you conducted your primary research: how you collected the data (the survey type you used – interviews/questionnaires or the text(s)/video(s) you studied), who your participants are, or what text(s)/video(s) you studied, why you choose these participants or text(s)/video(s), and your scope or limitations (what you didn’t cover and why). For example, you talk about why you chose a video, how you analyzed it into disinformation/misinformation claims (or disruptive information), opinions that are purely points of view, and facts that can be supported by data and evidence. Another example could be surveying or interviewing participants on the effects of disinformation relating to a particular topic. The number of participants will depend on whether you are conducting interviews or surveys. More on this will be discussed in class.


Use an appropriate way to arrange your findings, i.e. logically, chronologically, in order of importance, by region, or by topic. See examples in the papers on eLearn.


Tell the reader what you have taken away from this research, what the findings mean, and what you are suggesting and recommending based on these findings. Notice that papers include their recommendations and sometimes more on limitations and scope under the conclusion. Every statement you make must be justifiable by a point already discussed.


Entries are organized alphabetically by surnames of first authors and are formatted with a hanging indent. Use the Purdue APA Style Guide on eLearn to write your references. Your references must appear on a separate page (the last page) of your paper. You will need a minimum of seven sources in your reference list of your term paper. You could use up to ten if you feel that they will add to your argument. No bonus marks will be given for extra sources; however, if they do work well to showcase a sound literature review, this could boost your mark.

Appendix A: Formatting Headings


Use headings and subheadings to organize the sections of your paper. The first heading level is formatted with initial caps and is bolded and centered on the page. Do not start a new page for each heading.


Subheadings are formatted with italics and are aligned flush left. They are bolded.

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