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Hiiiiii Hdonsdn Part I Multiple choice. Choose the most appropriate response.

Hiiiiii Hdonsdn Part I Multiple choice (one point each)
Choose the most appropriate response. This will be the response that correctly completes the
numbered sentence or phrase or that answers the question asked. There is only one correct
letter response for each multiple choice question. Highlight or bold the item you identify as
correct.

1. Kerr and Shakespeare have concerns about the idea and process of geneticization
(identifying genes allegedly responsible for a particular trait)…
a) because most people do not fully understand the relationships between genes or between
genes and the environment or between an individual and the social environment in shaping
human characteristics.
b) because they want people to know that disabilities are due to genetic factors that can and
should be prevented.
c) because medical counselling tends to be directive as opposed to non-directive in the area of
genetics and reproduction and people are not always able to make well-informed decisions.
d) because they support the principle of parents’ freedom to design babies as they choose and
worry that not enough people have bought into the reality of geneticization.
e) all of the above
f) a, b and c only
g) a and c only
h) c and d only
i) none of the above

2. DCGT testing companies such as 23andMe…
a) have demonstrated that their testing of DNA to determine ethnic ancestry is highly accurate
because it is based on the reading of genomes, errors are so few that people can assume the
tests are foolproof.
b) critics have questioned the fact that genetic information suggesting customers have a gene or
genes associated with serious illnesses is sent to customers in the absence of any personal
counselling from medical professionals.
c) have scientifically proven that cultural preferences for things such as clothing and art are
highly correlated with one’s genotype and the genotypes of their distant ancestors from other
lands.
d) have been making customers’ genetic data and names available to assist police with their
investigations.
e) all of the above
f) a and c only
g) b and d only
h) a, b and c only
i) none of the above

3. Accordng to Malcolm Gladwell, the overall improvement in the IQ test scores of Italians in the
US at the close of the 20th century over the IQ scores of the generation that initially immigrated

a) is due to a significant and general change in the genetics of Italian-Americans whereby they
acquired most of the genes required for success on IQ tests in just a few decades.
b) is due primarily to the re-norming of IQ tests.
c) is due to enculturation/socialization whereby Italian-Americans adopted the use of ‘scientific
spectacles’ to understand the world.
d) is due almost totally to the better nutrition available to the children and grandchildren of Italian
immigrants to the US.
e) all of the above
f) b, c and d only
g) c and d only
h) a and d only
i) none of the above

4. Practices employed in Neolithic animal husbandry which were echoed by a number of 20th
century eugenics programs include…
a) segregation of “undesirable” individuals.
b) sterilization of “undesirable” individuals.
c) artificial insemination
d) slaughter/killing of individuals considered “undesirable” for breeding.
e) the study of ancestors’ pedigree to identify superior and undesirable individuals.
f) all of the above
g) a, b, d and e only
h) a, c, d and e only
i) a, b and c only
j) a, b and d only

k) none of the above

5. Kerr and Shakespeare (2002) contend that…
a) unrestricted genetic screening for so-called undesirable traits could lead to increased
discrimination against the disabled.
b) people should have the freedom to pre-select or design the genetic composition of their
offspring.
c) women should be legally denied the right to choose whether to proceed with a pregnancy to
prevent selection based on genetic traits.
d) research into behavioural genetics should be stopped.
e) all of the above
f) a and c only
g) a and d only
h) b, c and d only
i) none of the above

6. Alberta’s eugenics laws had the following things in common with Nazi eugenics…
a) the programs in both jurisdictions practiced eugenic euthanasia.
b) both jurisdictions had state residential institutions for the mentally disabled.

c) people identified as having a serious mental disability could be sterilized.
d) both jurisdictions had compulsory sterilization of those deemed mentally unfit to be parents.
e) both jurisdictions rejected the use of IQ tests to determine cognitive abilities.
f) all of the above
g) a and d only
h) b and c only
i) b, c and d only
j) none of the above

7. Assuming that the facts in the “Baby Killer Mom” news story are accurate, we can reasonably
conclude that…
a) Corrona Shorting has demonstrated poor parenting skills.
b) According to Canadian law, the protection of Corrona Shorting’s human rights required the
government to allow her immediate custody of her living children.
c) Corrona Shorting will be prevented from having any additional children.
d) had a similar case occurred in Sweden or Germany in the late 1930s, the mother in question
could have been required to undergo compulsory sterilization.
e) all of the above
f) a and d only
g) a, b and c only
h) c and d only
i) none of the above

8. Sociobiology…
a) proposes that some of our behavioural and intellectual traits may have evolved during the
EEA.
b) assumes genetic mutations that enhance survivability are more likely to be passed on to
future generations than those genetic traits which do not contribute to survival.
c) provides explanations based on evolutionary genetics for why an individual might give up
their life to save the life of other family members.
d) rejects the principles of developmental psychology as they are incompatible with the true
nature of human development.
e) all of the above
f) a, c and d only
g) a, b and c only
h) b, c and d only
i) none of the above

9. The interactionist perspective, aka developmental systems perspective…
a) is compatible with the idea of bidirectional influences.
b) is not compatible with the core ideas presented by sociobiology
c) is compatible with the idea that we are born as “tabula rasa” — our social environment is
almost totally responsible for your personality and behaviour traits.

d) claims that approximately 50% of our behavioural traits, personality and intellect are
determined by our genes and approximately 50% is determined by our social environment.
e) all of the above
f) a and b only
g) b, c and d only
h) c and d only
i) none of the above

10. The bureaucratic structure of the T4 program has been seen as a contributing factor to the
lack of opposition or protest by those involved because…
a) many participants in the process were not made aware of the big picture or ultimate
objectives of the program.
b) the multi-level decision making chain enabled participants to avoid full responsibility for
eventual outcomes.
c) if medical professionals had been involved in the system they would have put a stop to it.
d) eugenics had little or no support among German academics who would have opposed T4
had they known about it.
e) all of the above
f) b and c only
g) a and b only
h) none of the above

11. The Economist article “Homo Administrans”…
a) proposes that genes do not have any effect on our behaviour
b) claims that some geneticists contend that people with certain genotypes may be better suited
to particular occupations than people with different genotypes.
c) proves that there is a single gene pair that virtually guarantees one’s success as a corporate
executive and that without this genotype one cannot become a corporate leader.
d) claims that most violent behaviour can be attributed to the gene MAOA.
e) all of the above
f) a, c and d only
g) b and c only
h) b, c and d only
i) none of the above

12. The rules of thumb for causality described in the course material…
a) include the principle that complex causal explanations based on numerous assumptions are
generally preferable to simple explanations.
b) a causal explanation should account for reasonable alternative explanations rather than
relying solely on correlations between two variables.
c) recognize that causes must always precede effects.
d) do not allow us to make root cause arguments or arguments that rely on indirect causes or
long causal chains.
e) all of the above

f) a, b and c only
g) b and c only
h) c and d only
i) none of the above

13. Binding and Hoche (1920) used the term “human ballast” to refer exclusively to…
a) the population of obese people who were lacking in work ethic but consumed large amounts
of food.
b) wounded soldiers who were taking up space in German hospitals after WWI.
c) academics who did no physical labour.
d) Communists, Jews, Gypsies and Jehovah’s Witnesses.
e) members of the Nazi Brown Shirt organization
f) all of the above
g) c, d and e only
h) a, b and c only
i) none of the above

14. Developmental psychology…
a) proposes that the system of progression through stages of psychological and cognitive
development is innate, but can be affected by the environment.
b) generally assumes that certain cognitive (knowledge) skills are not available to children falling
under particular developmental thresholds.
c) totally rejects the influence of genetics on the development of personality.
d) totally rejects the influence of socialization on personality.
e) all of the above
f) c and d only
g) a and b only
h) none of the above

15. According to interactionism, and/or the developmental systems perspective presented in this
course…
a) 50% of a human’s personality and intellect are shaped by genes and 50% is due to
environmental conditions.
b) both genes and the environment play critical roles in the shaping of all human traits.
c) with the proper environmental conditions any person is capable of becoming a genius and
leading a large corporation.
d) by controlling what goes into a person’s genetic code it is possible to know precisely how
much success they will have in life regardless of the social class they were born into.
e) genes and the environment both play important roles in shaping how we develop and it is
difficult to impossible to precisely identify or measure the role played by each of these factors.
f) all of the above
g) a, b and c only
h) c and e only
i) b and e only

j) none of the above

16. The Economist article “Next candidate; Genes and behaviour,”…
a) notes that approximately half the human population has the low activity form of gene MAOA
which has been correlated with violent crime.
b) contends that the Tiihonen study does not prove that the low activity version of MAOA is by
itself the cause of criminal violence.
c) contends that the low activity MAOA allele cannot possibly be involved in triggering violent
behaviour.
d) reports that the Tiihonen study shows that extremely violent prisoners were far more likely to
have the low activity version of MAOA than non-violent prisoners.
e) all of the above
f) a, b and c only
g) a, b and d only
h) b, c and d only
i) none of the above

17. Kerr and Shakespeare’s policy prescription for the governance of genomics and its
application to humans…
a) calls for more robust rules around the privacy of genetic information
b) calls for the loosening of restrictions on the patenting of genes and human gene editing
c) says controls on private sector activity in genomics and human gene editing should be
relaxed
d) says the commercial market for genetic tests and screening services should be staunched.
e) all of the above
f) c and d only
g) a, b and c only
h) a and d only
i) none of the above

18. Sociobiology and evolutionary psychology…
a) assume certain human social behaviours are the result of evolutionary processes.
b) assume that certain human social behaviours and psychological characteristics are innate.
c) speculate that if simpler life forms such as bees and beavers demonstrate innate social
behaviour, it is reasonable to speculate that humans might also have innate or genetically
inherited social behaviours.
d) speculate that certain human social patterns and conditions emerged because they offered
greater potential for the survival of human populations and specific genes.
e) all of the above
f) b and c only
g) a and d only
h) none of the above

19. Eugenics and social Darwinism share the following idea(s)…
a) human personality and behaviour traits are heavily influenced by genetic factors.
b) nothing can be done to improve the behaviours and intellectual performance of the lower
classes.
c) social ills such as poverty, sloth, alcoholism and criminality are heavily influenced by
genetics.
d) with the proper environment and education anyone can achieve greatness.
e) all of the above
f) a and c only
g) b, c and d only
h) none of the above

20. The SSSM…
a) rose to public and academic prominence following WW II and the exposure of extreme
negative eugenics and race-based genocide committed in Nazi Germany.
b) assumes that for many (if not most) human behavioural, social and psychological
characteristics are shaped by socialization as opposed to genetics.
c) provided ammunition for those arguing against the idea that some races are more intelligent
than others due to superior genetics.
d) included behavioural psychology which proposed that many human behavioural traits could
be developed and/or modified using various manipulative psychological techniques.
e) all of the above
f) a, c and d only
g) b and d only
h) c and d only
i) none of the above
21. According to Kerr and Shakespeare, the term geneticization refers to…
a) using genomic science for backdoor eugenics
b) attributing human behaviour and personality traits to particular genotypes.
c) attributing human intelligence to the effects of a stimulating educational environment.
d) rejecting the idea that human behaviour is determined by either strong or weak correlations
between genes and behaviour traits.
e) all of the above
f) b and d only
g) a and b only
h) a, c and d only
i) none of the above

22. If we were to calculate the heritability of five fingeredness (having four fingers and a thumb
on each hand) by comparing the appearance of this trait in identical and fraternal twins using
the heritability statistic the result would be closest to the following value…
a) 98
b) 100
c) 50

d) 0
e) none of the above

23. The Economist article “Body politic; The genetics of politics,”…
a) describes studies that involve what Kerr and Shakespeare would refer to as geneticization.
b) describes research by Hatemi and McDermott using twin studies that shows ideological views
may be related in part to genetics
c) points out that genes may influence inclinations but that is not the same thing as saying there
are conservative genes and liberal genes
d) reports on a study by Fowler that claims version 7R of gene DRD4 and 11 other genes are
implicated in people’s political preferences.
e) all of the above
f) a, b and c only
g) b and c only
h) b, c and d only
i) none of the above

24. Someone operating within a strict SSSM paradigm might reasonably be expected to
argue…
a) if a person who grew up in an alcoholic household becomes an alcoholic it is likely they
inherited the potential to become alcoholic genetically
b) social learning and socialization are incapable of controlling, or shaping human behaviours
that are inherited genetically
c) twin studies using IQ tests are not relevant because the tests are culturally biased and do not
measure all facets of intelligence
d) John Locke’s tabula rasa proposition supports genetic determinism
e) all of the above
f) a, b and c only
g) b and d only
h) c and d only
i) none of the above

25. Social science activities assumed to be compatible with the SSSM in fields such as
psychology and sociology…
a) unlike social Darwinism and eugenics cannot produce outcomes that infringe on individual
rights and freedoms
b) include behavioural psychology which cannot be employed in ways that adversely affect the
lives of individuals
c) have produced experiments such as the Little Albert and kitten vision experiments which
were of tremendous benefit to Little Albert and the kittens involved
d) often claim that genes do play the decisive role in shaping human behavioural and intellectual
characteristics
e) all of the above
f) c and d only

g) a, b and c only
h) a and d only
i) none of the above

26. Your instructor proposed the following in relation to the material presented on sociobiology…
a) no more than a small handful of simple reflexive human behaviours can be described as
innate and most of these involve the reflexes of babies.
b) some human behaviours that evolved in the EEA such as crowd effect and the fight or flight
response are of less or questionable value or utility in modern society
c) the sex drive is not innate and is developed entirely through socialization
d) Kiley Hamlin’s puppet plays prove humans have an innate/genetically inherited sense of
justice.
e) just because animals including insects and many mammals exhibit innate social behaviours it
is highly unlikely that humans do.
f) all of the above
g) a, c, d and e only
h) c, d and e only
i) b and c only
j) none of the above

27. Rutherford’s (2011) discussion of the timing of puberty…
a) demonstrates how certain genetically determined traits are not affected by environmental
conditions.
b) suggests that girls in father-absent households tend to reach puberty earlier than girls in
father-present households.
c) supports the idea that there are environmental influences affecting human sexual
development.
d) implies that single mother parenting does not produce outcomes that are significantly
different than those produced by conventional two-parent households.
e) all of the above
f) a and b only
g) b and c only
h) c and d only
i) none of the above

28. The behaviourist tradition, as exemplified by the work of scholars such as B.F. Skinner and
John Watson,…
a) assumes human behaviours are largely innate.
b) holds that most human behaviours cannot be influenced by socialization processes.
c) is reflected in the colloquial expression, “you can’t teach an old dog new tricks.”
d) is most closely associated with the nature side of the nature nurture debate.
e) all of the above
f) a and b only
g) a, c and d only

h) b, c and d only
i) none of the above

29. Hamilton’s rule…
a) attempts to describe conditions under which there is a genetic advantage to acting
altruistically.
b) assumes that the more closely related an individual is to others influences the likelihood that
the individual will make sacrifices on their behalf.
c) is consistent with the idea that important human behaviours have innate causes that
developed in the EEA.
d) is described by the pseudo formula rB>C
e) all of the above
f) a and d only
g) b, c and d only
h) none of the above

30. Ideas compatible with the SSSM include the following…
a) racism is a learned belief system developed through the socialization process
b) Malcolm Gladwell’s discussion of the acquisition of scientific spectacles shows that IQ is
heavily influenced by genetics
c) race is a socially constructed concept and has no meaningful significance in relation to
human characteristics such as personality or intellect
d) 20th century eugenics constituted an egregious assault on human rights and relied on largely
false interpretations of how genetics works and failed to account for the overwhelming influence
of socialization and nurturing in shaping human traits.
e) all of the above
f) a, c and d only
g) b, c and d only
h) a and d only
i) none of the above

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