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Playground Inspection According to the US Consumer Product Safety Commission, “Each year, more than 200,000 children go to U.S. hospital emergency rooms wi

Playground Inspection According to the US Consumer Product Safety Commission, “Each year, more than 200,000 children go to U.S. hospital emergency rooms wi

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Playground Inspection According to the US Consumer Product Safety Commission, “Each year, more than 200,000 children go to U.S. hospital emergency rooms with injuries associated with playground equipment. Most injuries occur when a child falls from the equipment onto the ground.” In this activity you will use a simple checklist to help make sure your local community or school playground is a safe place to play

To prepare for this Activity you need to:

Review the portion of the NCDCDEE Licensing Standards for Child Care Centers that address playgrounds.  

https://ncchildcare.ncdhhs.gov/Portals/0/documents/pdf/C/center_chp3.pdf

https://nrckids.org/CFOC/TOC

Create your own simple checklist from the NCDCDEE Standards and the information

presented in the text book.

Print out and familiarize yourself with the “America’s Playgrounds Safety Report Card” and study the criteria explanations on page 485. You will be using this Report Card as part of your evaluation.

National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education. (2012). Caring for our children: National health and safety performance standards; Guidelines for early care and education programs. 3rd edition. Appendix EE: America’s Playgrounds Safety Report Card. Available from http://nrckids.org/CFOC3/PDFVersion/PDF_Color/CFOC3_EE.pdf

Find a local park, childcare center or school playground where young children play. You will not need permission for a public park but will need to schedule an appointment if you choose a center or school.

Take a tape measure with you so that you can make accurate measurements.

 

During the inspection:

Be a considerate guest and be careful not to offend your host with critical comments.

Evaluate the playground using your checklist.

Complete the Safety Report Card according to the criteria on the form.

After you have completed your evaluation:

You will need to write a report that includes the following:

Name, location and description of the playground that you choose to inspect.

Did the playground meet the criterion outlined on your checklist? Be specific about any problems that were found.

How did the playground score on the Safety Report Card? Be specific about any problems that were found.

How do you feel the playground facilitates children’s health by engaging them with the outdoor environment?

What would you recommend for an action plan to improve this playground?

 Resources:

https://ncchildcare.ncdhhs.gov/Portals/0/documents/pdf/P/playground.pdf?ver=2018-07-19-162157-560

https://ncchildcare.ncdhhs.gov/Portals/0/documents/pdf/P/playground_safety.pdf Division of Child Development Child Care Center Handbook

Chapter 3: OUTDOOR LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

Purpose Of These Requirements
It is becoming clearer from emerging research that children need to spend time outdoors to be
healthy as they grow and develop. “Children will be smarter, better able to get along with others,
healthier and happier when they have regular opportunities for free and unstructured play in the
out-of-doors.” (Burdette and Whitaker, 2005) The purpose of these requirements is to ensure
that all children in child care are given the opportunity to play outdoors on a daily basis and
ensure the outdoor learning environment is safe. Outdoor play is beneficial to children as well as
caregivers. Research tells us that spending time outdoors, exposed to fresh air, sunlight, and
natural elements such as trees and grass, provides many health benefits.

The outdoor learning environment offers a sense of freedom for children. Children are able to
play freely with peers, expand their imagination beyond the restraints of indoor activities, release
energy, and explore their sense of touch, smell, taste and their sense of motion. Caregivers are in
a unique position to utilize the outdoor environment to promote development and learning. The
Division requires that children in licensed child care programs spend time outdoors every day,
weather permitting.

The North Carolina Outdoor Learning Environments (NC OLE) Alliance is a statewide
collaboration comprised of organizations, agencies, and individuals focused on improving the
quality of outdoor environments and experiences for all children. To access research and other
supporting information on the benefits of outdoor play visit the Outdoor Section of the NC
Office of School Readiness web site at www.osr.nc.gov/ole.

Another resource available is the Preschool Outdoor Environment Measurement Scale
(POEMS), which is a measurement tool available to assist in evaluating the quality of the
outdoor environment in child care centers for children three to five years of age. To learn more
about quality in outdoor environments for child care and POEMS visit www.poemsnc.org.

Definition
 Weather permitting is defined as every day, unless there is active precipitation, extremely

hot or cold conditions, or public service announcements that advise people to stay indoors
due to weather conditions that could be hazardous. The Division allows child care operators
to use their best judgment when deciding to take children outdoors in order to make sure
children remain safe.

Outdoor Learning Environment page 3.1

http://www.osr.nc.gov/ole

http://www.poemsnc.org/

Division of Child Development Child Care Center Handbook

SECTION I. DAILY OUTDOOR PLAY

NORTH CAROLINA GENERAL STATUTE 110-91(2) AND
CHILD CARE RULE .0509

Daily Outdoor Play

 Each child in care must be given the opportunity for outdoor play each day that weather
conditions permit.

 The center must provide space and time for vigorous indoor activities when weather
conditions do not permit children to play outdoors.

 All children, including infants and toddlers, must be taken
outdoors daily.

 Licensed after school programs are required to take children
outside daily even if the program operates less than 4 hours a
day.

 The amount of time children must spend outdoors or the high
and low temperatures for outdoor play are not specified in the
child care rules. Child care operators are allowed to use their
best judgment when deciding to take children outdoors.

 Short periods of time outdoors must be provided even in hot
or cold weather. Playing in gentle rain or snow is a learning
experience and can be both educational and fun for children.
Make sure children are dressed appropriately.

 The schedule may need to be changed to allow children to go
outdoors at the most appropriate time of the day.

 Children that are too sick to go outdoors and/or are not able
to participate in all daily activities, which include outdoor
activities, should be excluded from care until they are well
enough to participate in all daily activities.

 Getting outdoors daily, even in the winter, helps children
develop healthy minds and bodies. Many adults believe
children will get sick from playing outside in cold weather.
Children are actually more likely to stay healthier if they play
outdoors during winter months. Germs are not contained and
concentrated outdoors. Refer to the Winter 2005 issue of the
NC Child Care Health and Safety Bulletin on Outdoor Health
and Safety for additional information about how the outdoors
is healthy for children. www.healthychildcarenc.org

Outdoor Learning Environment page 3.2

http://www.healthychildcarenc.org/

Division of Child Development Child Care Center Handbook

HH – When outdoor play is not possible, unspent energy can make
children irritable, anxious, and difficult to manage. Make
indoor days more pleasant and fun by planning activities that
keep children active.

HH – Help parents understand the benefits of outside play and that
children are learning when they go outside. Let parents know
children will be going outdoors daily, weather permitting,
and to make sure to dress their child properly for the weather.

HH – The United States Department of Health and Human
Services and the National Association for Sports and
Physical Education recommends children should engage in at
least 60 minutes of physical activity daily.

 The National Health and Safety Performance Standards
developed by The Iowa Department of Public Health created
the Child Care Weather Watch as a guide to assist caregivers
in planning for playtime, field trips, and weather safety. A
copy of this guide is available at
www.idph.state.ia.us/hcci/common/pdf/weatherwatch.pdf.
The Child Care Weather Watch is also used by the North
Carolina Rated License Assessment Project to determine
“weather permitting.”

SECTION 2: OUTDOOR SPACE REQUIREMENTS

NORTH CAROLINA GENERAL STATUTE 110-91(6) AND
CHILD CARE RULE .1402

Space Requirements

 There must be 75 square feet of outdoor space per child, or for the number of children
indicated by the center’s licensed capacity.

 If licensed for 6 to 29 children inclusive, there must be 75
square feet per child of outdoor play area for the total number
of children for which the center is licensed.

 If licensed for more than 30 children, there must be at least
75 square feet per child of outdoor play area for at least one-
half of the total number for which the center is licensed,
provided that the minimum amount of space is enough to
accommodate at least 30 children.

 The total number of children on the playground cannot
exceed the number of children the space will accommodate at
75 square feet per child.

Outdoor Learning Environment page 3.3

http://www.idph.state.ia.us/hcci/common/pdf/weatherwatch.pdf

Division of Child Development Child Care Center Handbook

Outdoor Learning Environment page 3.4

 Centers operating exclusively during the evening and early
morning hours (6:00 pm through 6:00 am) do not have to
meet the outdoor play area requirements.

 In some areas, there are local zoning ordinances that require
larger space requirements per child than the minimum state
requirement. It is the operator’s responsibility to make sure
that all local/city/county ordinances are met.

 To be eligible for more points in program standards for the
issuance of a Star Rated License, you will need to meet
additional outdoor space requirements. Refer to Chapter 17–
Star Rated License for specific requirements.

NORTH CAROLINA GENERAL STATUTE 110-91(6) AND
CHILD CARE RULE .0605
Requirements for a Fence

 The outdoor play area must be protected by a fence of at least 4 feet in height.
 The fence must not contain entrapments and fences lower than 6 feet tall must be free of

protrusions.

 The fencing must exclude fixed bodies of water such as ditches, quarries, canals,
excavations, and fishponds.

 Gates to the fenced outdoor play area must remain securely closed while children occupy
the area.

 Entrapment is considered any opening greater than 3 ½
inches but less than 9 inches that would allow a child’s body
to pass through but could trap a child’s head.

 Protrusion is any object that extends past the outer surface of
a piece of equipment that could puncture or scrape children
or entangle clothing.

 The purpose of the fence surrounding an outdoor learning
environment is to keep children safe inside and provide
protection from roaming animals or other people outside the
play area.

 The height of a fence will be measured from the interior side
and will begin at the top of any surfacing located directly
next to the fence and extend to the top of the fence.

Division of Child Development Child Care Center Handbook

Fence height

 Check all openings in the fence for possible entrapments or
protrusions.

 Centers operating in a public school are deemed to have
adequate fencing protection and, therefore, are not required
to have a fence regardless of who operates the program.

 If a fence that completely encloses the designated outdoor
area is present, it must meet the standards in Section .0600 of
the child care requirements. There also must be sufficient
square footage available within the fenced area to
accommodate the number of children the program is licensed
for, or an additional open area must be designated for outdoor
play.

Possible Entrapment

Possible Protrusion

 All equipment located within the fenced area designated for
use by the licensed public school program serving preschool
age children must meet the requirements in Section .0600.

SECTION 3: EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS

CHILD CARE RULE .0605
Condition of Outdoor Learning Environment

 Each child care center must provide an outdoor play environment that is safe and free of
hazards.

 If equipment is provided, proper maintenance of all equipment is required and all equipment
must be in good repair.

 If provided, commercially manufactured equipment must be assembled and installed
according to procedures specified by the manufacturer.

 Manufactured equipment is not required and while it may
offer unique opportunities and challenges for children, it
should not dominate the outdoor learning environment.

Outdoor Learning Environment page 3.5

Division of Child Development Child Care Center Handbook

 Equipment accessible to children during normal supervised
play must be sturdy, stable, and free of hazards, which
include sharp edges, lead based paint, loose nails, splinters,
protrusions (excluding nuts and bolts on sides of fences), and
pinch and crush points.

 All broken equipment must be removed from the premises
immediately or made inaccessible to children.

 Make sure all nails and bolts are flush with the outer surface
of equipment.

 Children are not allowed to play on outdoor equipment that is
too hot to touch.

 If a center chooses to use lightweight, portable equipment,
they must make sure that it is used properly and safely.
Many companies indicate that this type of equipment is
intended for home use only and will not hold up to high use
at a child care center. An alert was issued by the U.S.
Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) that
indicated these pieces of equipment should never be placed
over concrete, asphalt, wood, or other hard surfaces.

HH – It is best practice to conduct morning safety walks to
observe the outdoor area before children go outside. There
may be fallen tree limbs, trash, wasp nests, ice or other
hazards that sometimes turn up over night or over the
weekend.

 The law exempts playground equipment on public school
grounds used by school-age children from having to meet the
child care rules related to the outdoor area, including the
playground safety training and completing the monthly
playground inspection. The exemption does not exempt
public schools from having to remove or fix broken
equipment if it is to be used by children. The law also
specifies that the exemption will be noted on the license.

 CPSC is committed to protecting consumers and families
from products that pose a fire, electrical, chemical, or
mechanical hazard or can injure children. To obtain product
safety information or to report unsafe products call 800-638-
2772 or visit their website at www.cpsc.gov.

Outdoor Learning Environment page 3.6

http://www.cpsc.gov/

Division of Child Development Child Care Center Handbook

CHILD CARE RULE .0605
Condition of Outdoor Learning Environment

 Upright angles on equipment or fencing must be greater than 55 degrees to prevent
entrapment and entanglement.

 Any openings in equipment, steps, decks, fences, and handrails must be smaller than 3 ½
inches or greater than 9 inches to prevent entrapment.

 An upright angle would be any “V” shaped corner formed by
adjacent components of play equipment.

 Possible entrapment in a ladder: space between slats should
be less than 3 ½ inches or greater then 9 inches.

The space where the handrails meet
the slide could be an upright angle.

 Entrapments are a very serious safety hazard and children
have died or been seriously injured due to entrapments on
playground equipment.

 Check all openings in steps, decks, handrails, fences and
other areas on equipment for entrapments.

CHILD CARE RULE .0605
Condition of Outdoor Play Equipment

 All equipment must be free of protrusions.

Outdoor Learning Environment page 3.7

Division of Child Development Child Care Center Handbook

 Protrusions can be tested using three different gauges. The
gauges are hollow tubes, usually plastic or PVC pipe, in the
dimensions indicated below:

1. The first gauge tests the ability of an item to puncture a child’s temple/head.

Side view
Top view .50 inch inside
diameter .25 inch height

1.0 inch outside diameter

2. The second gauge tests the ability of an item to puncture a child’s eye socket.
Side view
Top view
1.5 inch inside .75 inch height
diameter
2.0 inch outside diameter

3. The third gauge tests the ability of an item to puncture a child’s chest, ribs, and/or stomach.

Side view
Top view

3.0 inch inside 1.5 inch
diameter height

3.5 inch outside diameter

 To test, place each gauge over any protruding item and
determine if it extends beyond the face of the gauge. When
tested, no portion of the item should extend outside any of
the three gauges.

 You can build your own gauges using the above
measurements and appropriate materials.

 Places to look for protrusions include bolts on equipment or
fences, handrails on spring rockers, or other fixed equipment.

CHILD CARE RULE .0605
Fall Zones and Resilient Surfacing

 If equipment is provided, all stationary outdoor equipment more than 18 inches high must
be installed over protective surfacing.

 Footings, which anchor equipment, should not be exposed.
 Loose surfacing material shall not be installed over concrete.

Outdoor Learning Environment page 3.8

Division of Child Development Child Care Center Handbook

 Stationary equipment is any equipment that is anchored to the
ground or is so heavy that it cannot be easily moved.

 Centers wishing to offer the safest outdoor learning
environments may consider installing or having resilient
surfacing under and around all pieces of equipment whether
anchored or not.

 Acceptable materials to be used for surfacing include: wood
mulch, double shredded bark mulch, uniform wood chips,
fine sand, coarse sand, and pea gravel.

 Other materials that have been certified by the manufacturer
to be shock-absorbing protective material in accordance with
the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
Standard 1292 may be used only if installed, maintained, and
replaced according to the manufacturer’s instructions. This
could include rubberized tiles, shredded tires or poured-in-
place rubber surfacing. You will need to have written proof
of testing done on the materials to certify that it meets the
ASTM standard.

 We recommend receiving prior approval from your child care
consultant before installing alternative types of surfacing
material to make sure it complies with the surfacing
requirements.

 The amount (depth) of surfacing needed is based on the
critical height of the equipment. The critical height is
defined as the maximum height a child may climb, sit or
stand. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission
defines critical height as the maximum fall height from which
a life threatening head injury would not be expected to occur.
The critical height value of the surfacing material under and
around playground equipment should be no less than the
height of the equipment.

Equipment Critical Height

Type of
Surfacing

5 ft or less 6 ft 7 ft – 10 ft

Fine or coarse
sand

6 inches 12 inches 12 inches

Wood mulch 6 inches 6 inches 9 inches
Double shredded
bark mulch

6 inches 6 inches 9 inches

Wood chips 6 inches 6 inches 9 inches
Pea gravel 6 inches 6 inches 9 inches

Outdoor Learning Environment page 3.9

Division of Child Development Child Care Center Handbook

 Pea gravel cannot be used as a surfacing material in areas
used by children less than 3 years of age.

 Sand is not recommended as a surfacing material in areas
used by children less than 2 years of age. Young children
may ingest sand and uncovered areas of sand cannot be
protected from contamination.

 Checking the depth and resiliency of surfacing material
should be done regularly. Maintenance will be required to
replace any missing surfacing or to rake and aerate the
existing material.

 Carefully check the depth of surfacing in high use areas such
as exit regions of slides, areas under swing sets, and high
traffic areas.

 To be eligible for the most points in program standards for
the issuance for a Star Rated License, you will need to have
an Environment Rating Scale assessment completed. Refer
to Chapter 17 – Star Rated License for specific details
concerning fall zones and surfacing and the Environment
Rating Scale.

CHILD CARE RULE .0605
Special Requirements for Fall Zones

 For stationary outdoor equipment used by children under two years of age, the protective
surfacing must extend beyond the external limits of the equipment for a minimum of 3 feet,
except for structures that have a protective barrier. On these structures, protective surfacing
is only required at all points of entrance and exit.

 For stationary outdoor equipment used by children two years of age or older, the protective
surfacing must extend beyond the external limits of the equipment for a minimum of 6 feet.

 No other equipment can be located within the fall zone of a piece of stationary equipment.
 Fall zones can overlap around spring rockers and around equipment that is more than 18

inches but less than 30 inches in height.

 If there are two adjacent structures and one is more than 18 inches but less than 30 inches in
height, the protective surfacing must extend a minimum of 9 feet between the two
structures.

 The area required to have protective surfacing is the area
under and around the equipment where the child is likely to
fall and is called the fall zone.

Outdoor Learning Environment page 3.10

Division of Child Development Child Care Center Handbook

 Swings must have protective surfacing that extends twice the
length of the pivot point to the surface below. The surfacing
should be to the front and rear of the swing.

10 feet

10 feet

 Swings do not need surfacing material or fall zones to the
side of the swing set.

 Swings should not be attached to a composite structure. A
composite structure is defined as two or more play
components attached or directly adjacent to each other
creating one integral unit that provides more than one play
unit (for example, combination climber, slide, and horizontal
ladder).

 The height of swings is measured from the top of the
surfacing material underneath the swing set to the pivot
point. The pivot point is the point at which the swing chains
meet the support structure.

 Tot swings must have protective surfacing that extends twice
the length of the pivot point to the bottom of the swing seat.
The surfacing must extent from the front to the rear of the
swing. A tot swing is defined as a swing with an enclosed
seat.

Tot swing Regular swing

on left on right

 Swing seats must be made of plastic or soft or flexible
material.

Distance of fall zone = 10 feet in front and
10 feet behind swing set

Height of swing = 5 feet

Outdoor Learning Environment page 3.11

Division of Child Development Child Care Center Handbook

 Tire swings must have protective surfacing that extends a
distance of six feet plus the measurement from the pivot
point to the swing seat and six feet to the side of the support
structure.

5 feet

Fall Zone must extend
11 feet in front and
11 feet in back

Fall Zone must
extend 6 feet to
each side of the
support structure

Outdoor Learning Environment page 3.12

Division of Child Development Child Care Center Handbook

 Homemade equipment can be used if it is safe and functional.
 Materials and equipment that are accessible to children must

not be coated or treated with or contain toxic materials such
as creosote, pentachlorophenol, tributyl tin oxide,
dislodgeable arsenic and any finishes that contain pesticides.
Always check with the manufacturer or supplier to receive
safety data before purchasing materials or equipment.

 The Rules Governing the Sanitation of Child Care Centers
has specific requirements regarding the construction and
installation of materials and equipment made from chromated
copper arsenate (CCA) pressure-treated wood. These
requirements are located in Appendix C – Sanitation of Child
Care Centers – Rule 15A NCAC 18A .2831(e-g).

CHILD CARE RULE .0605
Guardrails and Protective Barriers

 Elevated platforms must have a guardrail or protective barrier, depending on the height of the
platform and the age of children that will have access to the piece of equipment.

 Guardrails are required for equipment used by preschool and school age children if a platform
is more than 20 inches but less than 30 inches.

 Guardrails are required for equipment used by school age children only, if a platform is more
than 30 inches but less than 48 inches.

 Guardrails prevent inadvertent or unintentional falls off a
raised platform.

 The critical height of a piece of equipment with a guardrail is
measured from the ground to the top of the guardrail.

 Protective barriers prevent children from climbing over or
through the barrier.

 A barrier is a solid railing that will prevent children from
climbing over or through a piece of equipment.

 The critical height of a piece of equipment with a protective
barrier is measured from the ground to the platform.

Outdoor Learning Environment page 3.13

Division of Child Development Child Care Center Handbook

 Equipment used exclusively by children under 2 years of age:
 Protective barriers – an elevated surface that is more

than 18 inches above surfacing must have a protective
barrier. The minimum height of the top surface of the
protective barrier must be 24 inches.

 Maximum height – the platform or elevated play
surface can be no greater than 32 inches.

 Equipment used exclusively by children 2 years of age and
up to school age:

 Guardrails – an elevated surface that is more than 20
inches and no more than 30 inches above the
underlying surface must have a guardrail. The
minimum height of the top surface of the guardrail must
be 29 inches and the lower edges must be no more than
23 inches above the platform.

 Protective barriers – an elevated surface that is more
than 30 inches above the underlying surface must have
a protective barrier. The minimum height of the top
surface of the protective barrier must be 29 inches.

 Equipment used by children 2 years of age and older:
 Guardrails – an elevated surface more than 20 inches

and no more than 30 inches above the underlying
surface must have a guardrail. The minimum height of
the top surface of the guardrail must be 38 inches and
the lower edge must be no more than 23 inches above
the platform.

 Protective barriers – an elevated surface that is more
than 30 inches above the underlying surface must have
a protective barrier. The minimum height of the top
surface of the protective barrier must be 38 inches.

 Equipment used exclusively by school-age children:
 Guardrails – an elevated surface more than 30 inches

and no more than 48 inches above the underlying
surface must have a guardrail. The minimum height of
the top surface of the guardrail must be 38 inches and
the lower edge must not be more than 26 inches above
the platform.

Outdoor Learning Environment page 3.14

Division of Child Development Child Care Center Handbook

 Protective barriers – an elevated surface that is more

than 48 inches above the underlying surface must have
a protective barrier. The minimum height of the top of
the top surface of the protective barrier must be 38
inches.

Guardrail

Critical Height = Ground to top of Guardrail

CHILD CARE RULE .0605
Protective Barriers on Outdoor Play Equipment

 Protective barriers are required for equipment used by preschool and school age children if a
platform is more than 30 inches.

 Protective barriers are required for equipment used by school age children only if a platform
is more than 48 inches.

 The height of a protective barrier is based on the ages of children using the equipment.

 Be cautious that you do not create entrapments between your
rails or between the platform and the barrier

Barrier

Critical Height = Ground to Platform

Outdoor Learning Environment page 3.15

Division of Child Development Child Care Center Handbook

SECTION 4: SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

GENERAL STATUTE 110-91(6) & CHILD CARE RULE .0601
Safe Environment

 A safe outdoor learning environment must be provided for all children in care.
 Outdoor play equipment and materials must be age and developmentally appropriate.

 All equipment and furnishings must be child size or can be
adapted for safe and effective use by children using the
equipment.

 Equipment and materials must be age and developmentally
appropriate for all children who will use it.

 Web addresses for additional Playground Safety Resources
are located in the resource section.

GENERAL STATUTE 110-91(12) & CHILD CARE RULE .0508, .0509, &
.0601

Requirements for Activities

 The daily schedule must show block of time for activities that are scheduled for outdoor areas.
 Developmentally appropriate materials and equipment must be accessible for all children on a

daily basis.

 Materials and equipment for outdoor play must be sufficient to provide a variety of play
experiences that can promote children’s development socially, emotionally, intellectually, and
physically.

 Developmentally appropriate equipment and materials must be provided for a variety of
outdoor activities which allow for vigorous play and large muscle development.

 Outdoor learning environments help children develop
physically, socially, emotionally, and intellectually

 When setting up your outdoor environment include natural
elements such as plants, trees, grass, gardens, and hills to
provide opportunities for children to experience and interact
with natural materials and learn about nature.

 Keep in mind children are developmentally different in size
and ability when selecting appropriate materials and
equipment.

Outdoor Learning Environment …

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