Research Methods What is the concept of sampling? See the slides 13, 14, 15 in “Course Material 9 Field Research 1.ppt”  What is the concept of program e

Research Methods What is the concept of sampling? See the slides 13, 14, 15 in “Course Material 9 Field Research 1.ppt” 
What is the concept of program e

Click here to Order a Custom answer to this Question from our writers. It’s fast and plagiarism-free.

Research Methods What is the concept of sampling? See the slides 13, 14, 15 in “Course Material 9 Field Research 1.ppt” 
What is the concept of program evaluation? See the slides 14, 15, 16 in “Course Material 9 Field Research 2.ppt” 
What are the steps you take when conducting survey? See the slides 19, 20, 21 in “Course Material 9 Field Research 2.ppt” 

300 words Research Methods: A Process of Inquiry, 8/E
Anthony M. Graziano | Michael L. Raulin
Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Chapter 6: Field Research: Naturalistic and Case-Study Reseearch
Graziano and Raulin
Research Methods (8th Edition)

*

Field Research
Naturalistic Observation (Chapter 6)
Archival Research (Chapter 6)
Surveys (Chapter 13)
Case Studies (Chapter 6)
Program Evaluation (Chapter 13)
Field Experiments (Chapter 13)
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Challenge of Low-Constraint Research
Involves observation of participants in their natural surroundings
Can be difficult to observe behavior in natural surroundings
Often we are not sure what behaviors are important until we begin observations
Without the controls of the laboratory, participants are free to do what they want to do, and not what we are hoping to observe

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Naturalistic Observation Examples
Darwin’s voyage on the HMS Beagle (the data behind his theory of natural selection)
Goodall’s study of chimpanzees
Levine’s study of the Love Canal
Davis’s study of public spanking
Rosenhan’s study of psychiatric hospitalization
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Case-Study Examples
Freud’s study of patients while he formed his psychoanalytic theory
Witmer’s study of children in the first psychology clinic in North America
Piaget’s study of the development of children
Phillips’s study of people with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD)
First’s study of people with apotemnophilia
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

When to Use These Methods
For questions involving the natural flow of behavior
When first studying a research area
When testing the feasibility of a procedure
As a way of discovering contingencies
When interested in a single individual
To test the generalizability of laboratory findings
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Information Gained from These Methods
Provides new descriptive information
Can suggest hypotheses for later higher-constraint research
Can negate a general proposition
Provides information about contingencies
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Problem Statements and Hypotheses
Problem statements are often general and flexible in low-constraint research studies
Problem statements and hypotheses may evolve (i.e, start out general and become more specific) as the study progresses

Unable to test causal hypotheses with low-constraint research
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Making Observations
Ways to observe behavior
Unobtrusive observation: observing behavior without participants’ knowledge
Participant observation: observing behavior while participating in the situation

Want to reduce measurement reactivity
People behaving differently when observed
Reactive measures: enhance reactivity
Nonreactive measures: minimize reactivity

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Unobtrusive Measures
Measures of behavior that are not obvious to those being measured
Inherently nonreactive
Webb et al. suggest hundreds of clever unobtrusive measures
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Archival Records
Exist independent of a research study
Kept for purposes other than research
May be valuable in some research studies
Examples: government records, school and hospital records, census data, etc.

Access to such archival records may be restricted by legal and ethical constraints
Valuable data source for some studies
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Ethical Issues with
Using Unobtrusive Measures
Use of unobtrusive measures (including archival records) raises ethical issues
Participants are not given the right to say no
Some of the archival records contain sensitive data

Researchers need to show the necessity for unobtrusive measures and safeguards to protect the rights of the participants
Must have IRB approval

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Sampling of Participants
Try to obtain a representative sample
Representative samples allow us to generalize findings to the larger group

Sampling is often not under the control of the researcher in low-constraint research
Therefore, caution is required in interpreting the results
Generalize only to similar participants and NOT to the general population

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Sampling of Situations
People (and animals) behave differently in different situations
To get an adequate picture of behavior, we need to sample the behavior in many situations

Sampling many situations will indicate how consistent behavior is
It also gives clues about what factors may be affecting the behavior
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Sampling of Behaviors
Even in the same situation, people may behave differently on different occasions
Repeated sampling of behavior in a specific situation will indicate the consistency of the behavior

Repeated observation (essentially a replication) prevents us from developing theories based on a single, unusual behavioral response
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Evaluating the Data
Low-constraint data sets are a rich source of information
Data usually needs to be coded (i.e., simplified and organized)
Analyses depend on the questions and the type of data

Must be cautious in interpreting data from low-constraint research
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Limitations
Poor representativeness
Poor replicability
Ex post facto fallacy
Limitations of the observer
Going beyond the data
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Poor Representativeness
Most low-constraint studies have small, nonrandom samples
Rarely do the samples represent the population
Consequently, it is dangerous to generalize your findings too broadly
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Poor Replicability
Studies can be replicated only if
The procedures are clearly specified
The procedures were followed exactly

In low-constraint research
Procedures are often not specified
They may change as the study continues
They are often unique to the observer

Therefore, replication is difficult
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Ex Post Facto Fallacy
Definition: Interpreting an observed contingency as if it represented a causal connection
Low-constraint observation will never provide the controls for such strong conclusions

If ex post facto conclusions are interpreted as hypotheses to be studied, and not as established facts, they serve a useful scientific purpose
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Limitations of the Observer
Low-constraint studies often rely on the observational skills of the researcher
Detailed procedures are not specified
Specific procedures decrease flexibility
However, detailed procedures could constrain the observer in a way that would limit experimenter biases

Give up some control for the flexibility
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Experimenter Bias
It is difficult in low-constraint research for the researcher to avoid influencing participants (called Experimenter reactivity)
Experimenter effects can be controlled in higher-constraint research
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Going Beyond the Data
Low-constraint data are often intriguing
Nevertheless, one must be careful in drawing strong conclusions
Rosenhan broadly over-interpreted his data, even distorting the data
Interpretation should take into account other information we know about a phenomenon
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Ethical Principles
Primary Ethical Issues in Low-Constraint Research are:
Informed Consent
Confidentiality
Sensitivity of the Data

An IRB can give the researcher valuable guidance
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Summary
Low-constraint research provide valuable information
Types of low-constraint research
Naturalistic observation
Case-study research

The inherent limitations of these methods demand appropriate caution
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)
*

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. (2013)

Graziano & Raulin (1997)
*

Place your order now for a similar assignment and have exceptional work written by one of our experts, guaranteeing you an A result.

Need an Essay Written?

This sample is available to anyone. If you want a unique paper order it from one of our professional writers.

Get help with your academic paper right away

Quality & Timely Delivery

Free Editing & Plagiarism Check

Security, Privacy & Confidentiality