Safety Engineering 1.  Discuss the interrelationship between safety managers and safety engineers. In your discussion, include the roles and responsibiliti

Safety Engineering 1.  Discuss the interrelationship between safety managers and safety engineers. In your discussion, include the roles and responsibiliti

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Safety Engineering 1.  Discuss the interrelationship between safety managers and safety engineers. In your discussion, include the roles and responsibilities of each, and give at least two examples of when the two professions interact with each other.Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

2.  A manufacturing facility produces automotive components and expects a profit of 12% on each part produced. They have a more serious injury that results in a direct cost of $7,200. The cost of the each component sold is $14.75. Calculate the number of parts that are needed to cover this cost of loss. Show all work, and make certain that your discussion that follows meets the minimum word requirement.Your response must be at least 75 words in length.

3.  As the safety engineer, you have determined that a project is required to drastically reduce the cost of injuries. The project will cost $10,000. Your company’s financial controller has required that all potential projects have a return on investment (ROI) analysis before approval. She has asked that you present an analysis showing the cost reduction for the following 3 years of implementation. Assume a 3% inflation rate in your calculation. Assume a value for injury cost savings. Show all work, and make certain that your discussion that follows meets the minimum word requirement.Your response must be at least 75 words in length.

4. A local construction company has had a recent injury that involves minor medical treatment at a cost of $500 in total direct costs. As the safety manager, you have been asked to calculate the cost of this injury to determine the volume of business needed to cover this loss (cost). Once you calculate the cost, you should discuss what impact it has on the business. Assume a 4% profit margin. Show all work, and make certain that your discussion that follows meets the minimum word requirement.Your response must be at least 75 words in length. MOS 5201, Safety Engineering 1

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VIII

Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

8. Examine the relationship between safety management and safety engineering.
8.1 Discuss the primary functions of safety management and safety engineering.
8.2 Examine costs associated with injuries and accidents by using appropriate calculations.
8.3 Interpret the findings of the cost calculations.

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activity


Unit Lesson
Chapter 2, pp. 14–22
Chapter 35, pp. 506–519
Unit VIII Assessment


Unit Lesson
Chapter 2, pp. 14–22
Chapter 35, pp. 506–519
Unit VIII Assessment


Unit Lesson
Chapter 2, pp. 14–22
Chapter 35, pp. 506–519
Unit VIII Assessment

Reading Assignment

Chapter 2: Safety and Health Professions, pp. 14–22

Chapter 35: Safety Management, pp. 506–519

Unit Lesson

Safety management, as defined by the National Safety Management Society, is a function that enhances
company performance by predicting operational, procedural, or environmental risks and threats before they
occur (Sheahan, 2017). Safety management is a strategic process that identifies and addresses safety issues
for employees and the company. Aside from being a preemptive and preventative process, safety
management also corrects deficiencies and performance errors (Sheahan, 2017). In a nutshell, safety
management includes identifying hazards, assessing hazards, controlling hazards, and reducing and
eliminating hazards using the hierarchy of controls that were explained in Unit IV. Each of the roles of the
safety process requires knowledge and understanding, along with the proper tools. For example, a safety
manager may need to identify a hazard. The identification of hazards requires a group of standards. Often,
these can be regulatory standards or company-based standards that meet or exceed regulatory standards.

Management, in general, involves planning, obtaining, organizing, and orchestrating the elements necessary
to achieve the goals (Brauer, 2016). In recent years, many, if not most, companies have implemented safety
management systems. A safety management system is an organized set of programs that interact in a
systematic fashion to achieve the overall goal of injury reduction. A typical safety management system
includes policies, objectives, plans, procedures, organization, responsibilities, and measurements. A safety
management system is not designed as a quick fix solution to all problems. It is intended to provide a
systematic method of continuous improvement. Continuous improvement requires the establishment of
objectives and goals, measurements (checks), and corrective measures (monitoring). Again, a typical safety


Review of the Relationship between Safety
Management and Safety Engineering

MOS 5201, Safety Engineering 2



management system uses Deming’s PDCA (plan, do, check, and act) model to achieve continuous

Management of any department, including safety, requires the setting of specific goals. To achieve these
goals, performance must be measured often enough to take corrective actions in time to ensure the goals and
objectives are achieved. Of equal importance is determining what to measure. There are two basic types of
measurements that are conducted, including leading and lagging indicators. To use a simple explanation,
leading metrics (measurements) are a proactive approach, whereas lagging indicators/metrics are corrective
in nature. Leading metrics are used to perform the following actions:

• anticipate, prevent, or eliminate risks and loses;

• monitor and evaluate performance;

• motivate safe behavior, personal commitment, and continuous improvement; and

• communicate results to management and workers (Brauer, 2016).

Training hours is an example of what to measure for leading indicators/metrics used by many. While training
hours can be a useful measurement, the value of this measurement is limited. This measurement simply
means that many hours were used for training and does not address the quality of the training. An alternative
to training hours would be to measure training effectiveness. This can be accomplished in several ways, such
as auditing scores of the workforce on the shop floor or monitoring test scores from the class. Examples of
other leading metrics include the number of environment, health, and safety (EHS) observations submitted
and closed, the number of safety work orders completed, or the number of safety actions submitted and

Lagging indicators are those measurements that indicate what has already happened. These measurements
have their own value, and most are mandated by regulatory action. These include total recordable incident
rates (TRIR), days away restricted or transferred (DART) rates, and severity rates.

Gone are the days of the safety manager or safety professional just making recommendations on using the
proper personal protective equipment (PPE) and conducting simple risk assessments or weekly inspections of
work areas. Today’s safety manager must be more involved in the operations and business side of the
company. The safety manager of yesteryear would request money from upper management to implement a
project to fix a safety-related problem because the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
required it. Today’s safety manager must learn to present the costs in a language that decision makers and
financial managers understand. Some of these tools include terminologies such as cost, benefits, and return
on investment (ROI). This lesson will walk you through some examples on how to present information in these

Expressing Costs

Expressing costs in the right terms can help people understand the importance of safety and its contribution
to company profits. One example is to express the cost of workers’ compensation in terms of cost per $100 of
payroll, such as $12.85 for each $100 of salary. In addition, you may express the cost of lost-time incidents in
the same terms, such as $8.50 for each $100 of salary (Brauer, 2016).

In the manufacturing industry, costs are often expressed in terms of cost-per-parts produced. You can
calculate this measurement using the equation below.

= ( )


P = the profit margin in percent
N = the number of its products necessary to cover the loss
U = the unit selling price for the products

MOS 5201, Safety Engineering 3




The company looks for a profit margin of 12% on every part produced. You have an injury requiring three
stitches. The actual direct cost of the injury is $2,500, which does not include any indirect costs, such as lost
productivity or the supervisor’s time. The part is manufactured and sold to the customer at a cost of $8.75 per
part. How many parts must be produced to cover the injury (Brauer, 2016)?

In order to work this calculation, you must plug in the known information in the correct place.

$2500 = (0.12)( )($8.75)

$2500 = 1.05( )



$1.05( )


2381 =

This means that the $2,500 injury would require the company to produce an addition 2,381 parts to cover this

Another method of expressing cost is to show the volume of business needed to cover the loss. This is shown
mathematically as shown below.

= ( )


P = the profit margin in percent
V = the dollar volume of business

An example illustrated on page 513 of your textbook is that a construction company expects a 5% profit on all
jobs. If the cost of an accident is $100, the volume of business necessary to cover the cost is $2,000. See the
calculation below.

= ( )

$100 = (0.05)( )



0.05 ( )


$2,000 =

$2,000 of business is needed to cover a loss of $100.


One of the things that most decision makers and financial managers will ask you to calculate is the ROI any
project, including safety projects. Therefore, it is necessary for safety managers to understand the calculation.
Mathematically, it is shown below.


∑(1 + )

MOS 5201, Safety Engineering 4




X = the dollar amount in a future year
D = the discount (interest) rate
N = the year in the program


To implement a corrective measure, a company will invest $5,000 initially and expects to reduce injury costs
by $1,000 for the first two years. What is the present value of the expected savings for the two-year period?
The interest rate is 4%.

Year 1


∑(1 + )


∑(1 + 0.04)1

1 = $961.54

Year 2


∑(1 + )


∑(1 + 0.04)2

2 = $925.93

Safety engineering is the application and engineering knowledge, principles, and methods to identify and
eliminate or reduce and control hazards. Safety engineers need to know a lot about other engineering fields.
They often work together with engineers from other specialties. Their roles are similar to those of safety
professionals. In addition, they participate or coordinate with designers and others in non-engineering
disciplines (Brauer, 2016).

The role of the safety manager has already been discussed and includes the overall management of hazard
identification, anticipation, and control of the hazard. In many cases, this requires a specialty understanding of
engineering principles. For example, the design of a fire suppression system cannot normally be performed
by a safety manager. The safety manager will call in a specialist to design this system. The safety manager
will outline the scope of the project and the desired outcome, but it is the safety engineer who does the actual
specification and design of the system. The safety manager and the safety engineer work hand-in-hand to
solve the problems of an organization. Other examples of where safety managers and safety engineers work
together are in the design of fall arrest systems; determining failure rates of equipment components, such as
valves; and conducting detailed root cause analyses for more complicated injuries and accidents.


Brauer, R. L. (2017). Safety and health for engineers (3rd ed.) Wiley.

Sheahan, K. (2017). What is safety management? BizFluent.


MOS 5201, Safety Engineering 5



Suggested Reading

In order to access the following resources, click the links below.

The following article discusses program development, which is the process of integrating safety, health, and
environmental quality programs into a safety management system.

Hansen, M. D. (2006). Management systems: Integrating safety, health, environmental and quality programs.

Professional Safety, 51(10), 34–41.

The following article discusses the role of safety professionals in the workplace and correction action
management. It discusses steps in an incident investigation and ways to determine whether corrective action
has been implemented.

Stainaker, C. K. (2000). The safety professional’s role in corrective action management. Professional Safety,

45(6), 37.

Learning Activities (Nongraded)

Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit
them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information.

Click the following link to review the qualifications to become a Certified Safety Professional (CSP): You are also requested to
review the other certifications offered by the Board of Certified Safety Professionals.

Visit the following website: Review the information on this website to get a complete
understanding of the requirement necessary for a safety professional in an organization.

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