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Social Science Ceteris Only Need Bid For Assignment Review the PREPARE/ENRICH case study that you assessed in Week Six and address the Couple and Family Ma

Social Science Ceteris Only Need Bid For Assignment Review the PREPARE/ENRICH case study that you assessed in Week Six and address the Couple and Family Ma

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Social Science Ceteris Only Need Bid For Assignment Review the PREPARE/ENRICH case study that you assessed in Week Six and address the Couple and Family Maps in this discussion.  Discuss how you can apply the concepts of the family map to the couple.  You will need to utilize the PREPARE/ENRICH manual. CASE STUDY: CLIVE & TESSA 1
CASE STUDY: CLIVE & TESSA 15

Case Study: Prepare/Enrich Assessment
Clive and Tessa

Azurdee Brown
Liberty University

Author Note

Azurdee Brown
I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to
Azurdee Brown
Email: acopper2@liberty.edu

Abstract

Although God created marriage as a sacred union between a man and woman, most end up in bitter conflicts, resulting in divorce, separation, or even loss of life. Clive and Tessa are a young couple between (21-25) years, who intend to get married. The PREPARE/ENRICH facilitator report indicates that they are a Vitalized Couple, with high levels of marriage satisfaction. Even so, it establishes significant growth areas that need to be addressed to prevent any conflict in their marriage. The established critical areas of concern include financial management, concerns about family and friends, as well as differences about marital expectations. More so, Clive and Tessa have significant personality differences that could likely enhance conflict, making finding a solution more difficult. Nevertheless, cognitive-behavioral skills training, integrating religious teachings, and an ecological counseling theory can prove vital during their premarital counselling process. Clive and Tessa can also benefit from home-based strategies, such as compliment and active listening exercises. Local resources for the couple can include joining and actively participating in a local church, or subscribing to a book discussion group in their locale, where they can get fundamental support. At a personal and professional level, the PREPARE/ENRICH training provides a concrete understanding of the complexities and dynamics of marriage and strategies to create meaningful bonds among couples.

Keywords: PREPARE/ENRICH, Marriage, Counseling, Conflict, Resources, Theory

Case Study: Prepare/Enrich Assessment: Clive and Tessa
Good marriages are considered a bedrock of strong societies. The Bible says in Roman 13:8, “owe no one anything, except to love each other, for the one who loves another has fulfilled the law.” It is clear that God created marriage and wanted men and women to love each other as a way of honoring him. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God, he created him; male and female, he created them. And God blessed them. God blessed them and said to them, “Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it (Genesis 1:27-28). Although marriage is a sacred thing from God, it is still prone to significant issues, leading to stress, divorce, and sometimes even suicide.
Critically, Clarke (2001) observes that individuals in marriage come from different backgrounds, portraying varied personalities physically, emotionally, intellectually, and even sexually. As such, they must learn how to create a conducive environment to embrace these differences for their marriage to grow and be successful. According to Johnson (2012), by using the PREPARE/ENRICH assessment program, counselors can help couples develop evidence-based skills and insights for stronger and healthy relationships. God wants couples to be strong in him. Philippians 4:13 is clear on this, “I am able to do all things through Him who strengthens me.” Thus, based on the assessment, Clive and Tessa (a conflicted couple) can find strength and stability in their relationship.
Background Information
 Clive and Tessa are a young couple aged between 21-25 years. They have both attained four-year of college and are protestant Christians. In terms of employment, Clive’s ethnic background is described as Caucasian, and he is a trained professional working in the business or finance services. On the other hand, Tessa is of more than one ethnicity, working as support staff in a retail/wholesale environment. Their yearly income also varies. Tessa earns between $20000 and $29999, while Clive $30 000 – $39 999 in a similar period. Although they were both raised by their biological parents, Clive’s parents are married, but Tessa’s parents are divorced. Even so, both agree they want to have children in 3-4 years, and their families’ feelings about their marriage plans are mainly positive. Arguably, when evaluating the couple’s background information, it is clear that some critical areas of concern that could bring conflict include issues with finance because of income differences, family background, ethnicity, and what they expect about each other in marriage. 
Strengths and Weaknesses
The PREPARE/ENRICH assessment incorporates nine categories that help to generate the Positive Couple Agreement (PCA) scores. According to Chan and Tan (2020), the PCA scores are essential in understanding individual strengths and weaknesses within a relationship, including key strengths, possible strengths, possible growth areas, and growth areas. Based on the PCA scores, Clive and Tessa can be categorized as Vitalized Couple. Nielsen (2019) indicates that these are coupled with high levels of relationship satisfaction, sharing feelings, and self-disclosing. Ideally, they portray high levels of expressing affection and sexuality. Clive and Tessa have many strength areas, thus most likely to have high levels of relationship satisfaction. However, some significant growth areas need to be improved.
One critical growth area is financial management. Both couples are unclear about how they plan to handle their finances and are concerned about spending and saving money. When considering the differences in individual yearly income, it is expected that the couple is likely to disagree about each other’s spending habits, savings, and making financial decisions. Ross et al. (2017) agree that financial problems can cause havoc in a relationship. One spouse can feel the other is overspending in most cases, while the other is just being “stingy.” At times, one can feel they know better about managing finances than the other and therefore supposed to handle the bills. In the case of Clive and Tessa, he works in financial services, thus might feel entitled to manage the finances, and most likely to feel Tessa is overspending.
Moreover, another significant area of concern is marriage expectation. This category involves realistic and unrealistic expectations about love marriage and the challenges that couples face. Clive tends to be somewhat realistic about the typical difficulties in marriage. On the other hand, Tessa is somewhat unrealistic and seems not aware of the typical challenges and difficulties of marriage. Although they both have a positive agreement about marriage expectations, they have unrealistic expectations on various items in the category. Arguably, Clive, being having both parents married, has a clear picture of marriage expectations, a little better than Tessa, who is most likely living with a single parent or a relative.
Although the couple shares many things, they portray some slight differences concerning their satisfaction with family and friends. Olson et al. (2012) indicate that the PREPARE/ENRICH category measures individual satisfaction with friends and relatives, looking at each partner’s opinion about the others’ family and friends. In this case, Clive and Tessa both feel optimistic about the way they relate with family and friends. However, they are aware of some issues that they need to discuss. Although they have a positive agreement, the couple portrays significant concern about each other’s family members and friends. While friends and family can be a source of support and encouragement, they can sometimes also interfere and undermine a relationship in which they agree and share a mutual concern.
While these issues portray some weaknesses that might contribute to the overall conflicted relationship of the couple, the sense that they have many strengths allows focusing on them thoroughly. One significant strength that provides a fundamental foundation of this relationship is communication. Both Clive and Tessa are very positive about their communication, particularly how they share feelings and listen to one another. Having solid communication skills provides a significant foundation to address issues of finance, family, and friends, as well as marriage expectations critical for the relationship to thrive. And the Bible says in Isaiah 1:18, “Come now, and let us reason together, says the Lord: though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool.” Through effective communication, Clive and Tessa will be able also to strengthen other crucial areas, such as conflict resolution, relationship roles, and partner styles and habits, essential for improving this potential growth area.
Personalities
According to Li et al. (2018), the SCOPE (Social, Change, Pleasing, Organized, and emotionally steady) personality assessment includes these five dimensions essential to understanding an individual. Based on the results from Clive and Tessa’s SCOPE personality scales, it will be possible to understand if the identified areas of concern in their relationship can lead to increased conflict and how personality differences can help towards recovery. Critically, they scored average on the social scale. Although they find social settings interesting, they tend to feel more comfortable alone in private. However, the preference of being alone or in a group is likely to vary based on mood or external circumstances. Thus, it could be concluded that Clive and Tessa enjoy balancing between social activities and their private life.
An average score can be a strength for the couple in that they both can balance between alone time and with others. When faced with financial, marital, and family issues in their relationship, one can prefer to having time together and sharing their deep concerns. When interacting with others, including friends, family, and even their spouse, one can utilize their capability to balance between alone time and time with others to avoid unnecessary conflict, communicating effectively about the views, preferences, opinions, and expectations. 
When considering personality traits that reflect Change, in this sense, openness, flexibility, and interest in new experiences, Clive and Tessa scored differently. Clive had a high score, portraying flexibility to change, openness, and unconventional sense to new experiences. Apart from having a broad range of interests, Clive thrives in creating unique and creative solutions when faced with problems. Even when out of balance, he still appears more interested in new adventures and ideas. 
In contrast, Tessa had a low score on the Change personality scale. She tends to be practical, down to earth with lesser regard to new experiences and ideas. She finds embracing change very challenging, and thus, more likely to seek out familiar things or strategies to solve problems. Because of their traditional or relatively conventional attitudes, they may appear closed off or rigid whenever out of balance. With such differences, the couple might be prone to significant conflicts, especially when considering changes in their lives.
Clive and Tessa both scored high in terms of how organized each individual is in their daily work and life. The couple is well-organized and persistent when pursuing goals. They tend to place great emphasis on a type of behavior and develop a well-thought-out plan when striving to achieve a particular objective. While out of balance, Clive and Tessa could be considered perfectionists. Smith et al. (2019) see such individuals as driven with a highly controlled approach to life. Such commonality in personality is essential for the recovery of a relationship. Being well-organized and goal-oriented means that the couple is always disciplined when trying to accomplish long-term goals. However, being too driven can lead to selfish adventures that could potentially contribute to conflict. 
The fourth dimension to consider is Pleasing, reflecting individual cooperative and considerate interactions with others (Li et al., 2018). While Clive scored high in this dimension, Tessa’s score was relatively low. Clive tends to be more friendly, cooperative, and trusting. He values being closer with people and getting to know and help them. Because of his optimism in others, Clive feels their views as essentially honest, trustworthy, and decent. When off-balance, he is likely to sacrifice his feelings or opinions just to please another person. As a result, they may find it difficult to as for something they need.
 On the contrary, Tessa is more assertive and less cooperative. She is likely to express her needs or anger more directly, which makes her prone to conflicts. When off-balance, she can be highly skeptical, increasingly controlling, and unfriendly. Typically, it is difficult to take advantage of such a person because they readily stand for themselves. With differences in this dimension, conflicts are highly imminent, meaning significant attention is needed on communication and conflict resolution skills. 
The last dimension in the SCOPE personality assessment is Emotionally Steady. Li et al. (2018) observe that it portrays the tendency to be calm under stress instead of being more reactive to stress in life. In the case of Clive and Tessa, they both had a high score in this trait. This means they are more relaxed and less prone to stress. When confronted with stressful occasions, they are likely to stay calm, exercise stability in emotions, and remain composed in such situations. While being calm and collected, Clive and Tessa are likely to find effective means to resolve any conflicts that emerge from the areas of potential growth that emerged from the PCA scores. It appears they have good problem-solving skills, which might help them avoid extreme emotions and navigate stressful moments in life.
Action Plan
In general, the areas of concern identified in Clive and Tessa’s relationship are financial management, marital expectations, and issues to do with family and friends. Although the couple does not portray significant weaknesses, their personality differences, particularly embracing change and being considerate and cooperative when interacting with others, can encourage conflicts. When dealing with these areas of concern in counseling, cognitive-behavioral training on effective skills for managing emotions, feeling, and overall behavior can be impactful. 
As cognitive-theory-based counseling, Shokrollahzadeh et al. (2017) indicate that cognitive-behavioral skills training therapy can help address a couple’s psychological experiences and emotional difficulties. Clive and Tessa’s case, financial management, family issues, and perceived marriage expectations can present significant stress and conflict in relationships. Basing on this model of counseling, couples can help address communication and problem-solving difficulties. In particular, communication training, conflict resolution, tolerance of differences, expression of affection, and acceptance (Shokrollahzadeh et al., 2017). Clive and Tessa can also benefit from strategies that seek to identify thoughts, challenge them, and replace them with a more objective and realistic sense.
While both Clive and Tessa are Christians, utilizing biblical teachings and principles can also be effective in the counseling process. As a more recent approach, religious-based cognitive counseling can be effective (Rajaei, 2010). The significant framework integrates humanistic and cognitive approaches, taking into account the religious insights and beliefs of the clients. Critical Bible verses such as Luke 14:28, which say, “Suppose one of you wants to build a tower. Would you not first sit down and estimate the cost to see if you have enough money to complete it?” encourages the need for communication between couples about financial concerns. 
In Ephesians 5:33, it is indicated that “If your marriage is filled with conflict, don’t give up.” Such verse can help couples set realistic expectations, understanding that they would be prone to marital problems because of the differences and weaknesses they have. Through communication and effective problem and conflict resolution mechanisms, they can be solved rather than break up. God created marriage and would wish it to remain sacred, away from intruders, be it friends or relatives who might want to undermine it. While referring to Matthew 19:6, Clive and Tessa can be reminded of the need to stay strong and let no one outside their union separate. “They no longer two, but one. Therefore, what God has joined together, let no man separate.” The goal is to remove conflicting thoughts and create an environment for communication and eventually compromise for a healthy and strong marriage.
Consequently, apart from the cognitive-based theory, ecological counseling can also provide a profound framework for Clive and Tessa counseling services. According to Moatamedy et al. (2018), an ecological perspective can help clients in therapy identify environmental concerns, using them as interventions beyond the exclusive focus. As a kind of systematic counseling theory, the ecological approach is informed by the pressures exerted on individuals from the social systems in which they live. It is this environment that shapes behaviors, thinking, and feelings. 
For instance, based on their family background, Clive and Tessa might have diverse views, opinions, or thoughts about managing finances. In some cultures, the man is considered the provider, while women and men share everything in others. By understanding an individual’s social networks, the counseling process will seek to revise those dynamics that might influence undesirable behaviors against a partner (Moatamedy et al., 2018). Also, this might be influenced by an individual’s affiliation with a particular group, community, or organization with regard to marriage expectations. When enough information is gathered about Tessa’s social-cultural environment, her marriage expectations can be understood. Thus, more informed when trying to review some of the marital myths that could lead her later disappointment.
 The significant local resources available for Clive and Tessa in the community include joining a religious group in church or subscribing to a book discussion group. This will provide the couple with a strong support network to navigate issues in their relationship. Fischer et al. (2016) agree that when they register and actively participate in the different groups, Clive and Tessa are likely to make good friends, meet other couples like them, and learn more concerning strategies that could lead to a happy and long-lasting marriage. 
For instance, a church like Pearl Family Church provides significant social support opportunities where people engage in social activities such as road trips, winter camps, and prayer night, which can be important for Clive and Tessa (Pearl Family Church, n.d.). Pearl encourages Christian to join them and learn the truth of life. “But when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all the truth” (John 16:13). Apart from Pearl, Mary Riley Styles Library, at Falls Church, Virginia, also has various book discussion groups that can be impactful for the couple (Mary Riley Styles, n.d). While Covid-19 has made things more complicated, these group interactions are mostly going online but still effective.
One significant homework resource from the PREPARE/ENRICH materials is learning and practicing skills, such as going through the ten steps of resolving conflict at home. According to Hasankhani and Vatankhah (2016), this can provide a vital approach to conflict resolution, problem-solving, and communication skills. While at home, Clive and Tessa can take few minutes after dinner to go through the ten-step steps by Prepare/Enrich marriage counseling program. Ideally, this includes setting a place and time for discussion, defining the problem, contributing to the problem, listing the attempts made to resolve the issue, brainstorming solutions, discussing and evaluating possible solutions, agreeing on a solution, agree on individual commitment to the solution, discuss progress and reward each other, while contributing toward the solution. 
Additionally, other significant resources for Clive and Tessa include role-plays during active listening and compliment-making exercises. Critically, the couple can focus on daily complements that would help promote positive feelings about each other. Clive and Tessa can agree to ensure that each one of them has said at least a compliment to the other each day throughout the counseling period and beyond. In addition, Brimhall and Chizk (2019) emphasize couples talking about each other in their relationship. By openly expressing their feelings, they can cultivate a culture of effective communication, where they are able to focus on each other’s feelings. Clive and Tessa can create at least fifteen minutes each week, where they discuss things they enjoy about each other, areas they are dissatisfied and where the other should improve.
Application
The PREPARE/ENRICH training has been a profound opportunity to understand a couple’s relationship, important for my future practice. On a professional level, I have benefitted from customized insights, including the knowledge and skill-building exercise involved in helping to enrich and improve a couple’s (Clive and Tessa) relationship. By understanding the couple’s background, strengths, weaknesses, and personality differences, I can navigate the complexities and dynamics of relationships, providing objective feedback during counseling, which is based on specifically related theories and models to the problem under assessment. I can confidently say I am able to give couples a more profound experience based on cultivating effective communication and helping them develop the necessary skills to improve their potential growth areas.
 

References
Brimhall, A. S., & Chizk, G. A. (2019). Remarriage in Couple and Family Therapy. Encyclopedia of Couple and Family Therapy, 6(2), 2481-2486.
Chan, E. W. L., & Tan, H. J. R. (2020). Positive Psychology Couple Schema Therapy: A new couple of therapy models focusing on reigniting couple attraction via schema therapy and positive psychology. Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities, 2(2), 61-69.
Clarke, D. (2001). A Marriage After God’s Own Heart. Multnomah Books.
Hasankhani, S., & Vatankhah, H. (2016). The effectiveness of PREPARE-ENRICH Program on subjective well-being and sexual self-efficacy of Iranian Couples. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies, 3(1), 1849-1857.
Johnson, R. (2012). Effectiveness of PREPARE-ENRICH Group Program for Married Couples. Biola University.
Li, X., Yao, P., Didericksen, K., Jang, J., & Olson, D. (2018). Five Personality Types Based on Big Five: A Latent Class Analysis. Family Science Review, 22(2) 15-26.
Mary Rile Styles (n.d.). Public library: Group Discussion Groups. Retrieved from https://www.fallschurchva.gov/627/Book-Discussion-Groups
Moatamedy, A., Khaki, A., Farahbakhsh, K., Esmaaili, M., & Bejestani, H. S. (2018). The Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Couple-Therapy based on Ecological Model in Reducing Marital Conflicts. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, 9(3), 162-166.
Nielsen, A. C. (2019). Psychodynamic Couple Therapy. Encyclopedia of Couple and Family Therapy, 2383-2390.
Olson, D. H., Olson, A. K., & Larson, P. J. (2012). Prepare-Enrich program: Overview and new discoveries about couples. Journal of Family & Community Ministries, 25, 30-44.
Pearl Family Church. (n.d.). Welcome to Pearl Family Church. Retrieved from https://pearlfamilychurch.com/#
Rajaei, A. R. (2010). Religious cognitive–emotional therapy: A new form of psychotherapy. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 5(3), 81-87.
Ross, D. B., O’neal, C. W., Arnold, A. L., & Mancini, J. A. (2017). Money matters in marriage: Financial concerns, warmth, and hostility among military couples. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 38(4), 572-581.
Shokrollahzadeh, M., Forouzesh, M., & Hosseini, H. (2017). The effect of cognitive-behavioral couple therapy on marital conflicts and marital burnout. Family Pathology, Counseling and Enrichment Journal, 3(1), 115-131.
Smith, M. M., Sherry, S. B., Vidovic, V., Saklofske, D. H., Stoeber, J., & Benoit, A. (2019). Perfectionism and the five-factor model of personality: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 23(4), 367-390.

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