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Stat Types of Training Needs Assessment Organizations should understand what their competencies are and where improvement is needed for future success. O

Stat Types of Training Needs Assessment

Organizations should understand what their competencies are and where improvement is needed for

future success. O

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Stat Types of Training Needs Assessment

Organizations should understand what their competencies are and where improvement is needed for

future success. Organizational needs and individual career needs should be linked in such a way that

meeting an individual need advances the organization toward its strategic goals. Addressing the

organization’s needs must take into account any major strategic issues the organization may face in the

next two years. Accordingly, the organization must determine its most critical needs as well as the

major challenges that will be encountered during that period of time. In order for the organization to

address those challenges, it must assess the critical skills, knowledge and abilities, and experience it will

need. Staffing levels for the future must also be determined so the organization can recruit the kind of

staff needed to meet the future challenges.

Individuals need specific skills, knowledge’s, and abilities (SKAs) to be successful. How these specific

SKAs are identified and addressed becomes part of a needs assessment process. Utilizing the

competency model, information can be obtained through the use of surveys, interviews, informal and

formal group discussions, and other tools. Any such process should involve a broad range of employees

representing different groups of workers. The goal is to identify the needs and problems of each group.

This will form the basis for developing processes to address problems that individuals and the

organization will face.

Performance Analysis

The purpose of an appraisal system is to improve the performance of the individual as well as the

productivity for the organization. In increasing numbers, appraisal systems are using an individual’s

customer focus as a key performance indicator. Most organizations use an annual performance

appraisal system.

At times, it may be necessary to look at specific capacities or abilities that individuals must have to

succeed in a specific job. This is appraised as aptitude. These aptitudes may include color

discrimination, eye-hand-foot coordination, clerical knowledge, form perception, spatial aptitude,

numerical aptitude, verbal aptitude, and general learning ability. In a work situation, an analyst must

determine the acceptable performance level for each required aptitude. The assignment of a specific

acceptable level is based on an analysis of the tasks of the job relative to the definitions and work

activities for each level. The scores are described in relation to the population: extremely high aptitude

or in the top 10% of the population; high aptitude or highest third of population (not considering the top

10%); medium aptitude of middle third of population; lower degree or lowest third (not considering the

lowest 10%); and markedly low aptitude or lowest 10%.

Most organizations use an annual performance appraisal system. Do these performance appraisals really

assess the tasks being performed? What types of appraisal systems are used and are they effective?

In addition to basic assessments, the organization should identify best practices for output performance

for specific jobs. Process models define effective workflows that result in the desired outputs. A gap

analysis determines the distance between the desired level of performance and the actual performance,

or between the desired state and the current state. A cause analysis determines the reasons for

performance gaps and may overlap other assessment models. To perform any assessments, it is

necessary to have methodologies to capture data and complete its analysis.

How do we know if individuals are properly performing their jobs? Most organizations use a

performance appraisal system that notes on a yearly basis how well a person is performing. Do these

performance appraisals really analyze the job being done? What types of appraisal systems are used

and are they effective? These are the issues that need to be investigated so that the appraisal process

can be improved.

Orientation

New employees typically have much to learn about the organization they have joined. In many cases,

the workplace is strange and frightening. The best way to begin is to have an effective orientation

session. The program can best be developed by including representatives from each staffing level to

ensure that the new employee is exposed to all areas of the organization. The benefits of an orientation

include increased productivity, reduced performance anxiety, and improved employee morale as

employees are aware of expectations. When done effectively, orientation increases retention and

lowers recruitment costs as well as turnover rates. New hires have a high initial cost to an organization.

Orientation Session

The orientation session will vary in length depending on the size of the organization, but the following

points should be covered:

• What is the assigned work area?

• Who is the supervisor?

• What does the unit do?

• What are the employee’s duties?

• What is the value of the work to the organization?

• Who are the co-workers?

• What are hours of work (including starting time, ending time, coffee breaks, lunch breaks)?

• What clothing is appropriate?

• Where are facilities (rest rooms, lunch rooms, etc.)?

• What are parking arrangements (including how to obtain a permit)?

• Who can worker go to if there is a problem and the supervisor is unavailable?

• How do I handle being late or absent?

• Who should be notified in case of an accident?

• How is leave accumulated and how to request time off?

• What are the pay dates and what deductions will be made?

• What is the increment system?

• What are the fringe benefits – health insurance, pension, vision, deferred compensation, etc.?

• What is the employee’s status?

• What is the probationary period?

• What are the advancement possibilities for the position?

Because of the initial apprehension about a new job and the great number of new things the individual

is exposed to on the first day, it is advisable to meet with the employee regularly in the initial weeks to

determine potential problems that can be easily corrected. The first such meeting should be on the

second day to determine whether there are any problems or questions the individual may have about

the job. Other issues to review would include whether the work assignment and expectations are clear

to the individual. If the individual has questions concerning the work or the organization, they should

also be answered at this time.

During the next two weeks, review with the employee the expected performance standards for the

employee’s work. This is also a good time to provide information on the training plans for the current

work assignment and for future development of the individual. Determine whether the employee is

having difficulty or expects to have difficulty with any of the duties of the job. Asking the employee what

areas are the most interesting in the current assignment is also important. Ask if there are any problems

with co-workers or the assignment and whether there is an understanding of the work being performed

in relation to the work of the entire office. It is essential that the employee understand the

performance appraisal process and how the work will be measured.

An orientation process should be adapted to the changing conditions of the workplace and should be

reviewed on a continuous basis to and modified as needed. The process must be carefully thought out

with a checklist of the important aspects developed. It is advisable to have a legal opinion for specific

areas such as dismissal and benefits. There should also be a follow-up to the process and an evaluation

of the orientation.

Training

In addition to orientation, organizations need to develop a training program. Training is defined as any

procedure initiated by an organization to foster learning among the members. Some new hires will have

the requisite knowledges, skills, and abilities (KSAs) when they start work, while others will need

extensive training before they are ready to contribute to the organization. The purpose of training is to

help the organization meet its objectives, although there is a secondary purpose of helping the trainees

effectively perform their jobs. The goal is to bring the KSAs to the level required to meet satisfactory

performance standards. Once the basic KSA levels are met, training can present an opportunity for

individuals to develop new skills and knowledge to qualify for other positions and advancement.

From an organization’s perspective, training is needed to increase competitiveness in the global

economy and to meet the challenges of advances in technology. When organizations restructure, skill

gaps can develop that need to be addressed through training. Through training, an organization

addresses the issue of job mortality and the emerging of new occupations. New occupations require

new skill sets that can be learned through training.

The systems approach to training is a common approach. This approach formulates objectives,

developing learning experiences to achieve objectives, establishes performance objectives, and gathers

information that will be used to evaluate the training program. In the initial phase, a needs assessment

must be completed. This requires an organizational analysis, a task analysis, a person analysis, and

instructional objectives.

An organizational analysis examines the goals, resources, and environment of the organization in which

the training will take place. The resources are technological, financial, and human. External factors

include the rules, laws, regulations, and court decisions that impact the organization. It is necessary to

collect data on a wide array of areas, such as the direct and indirect labor costs, the quality of goods and

services, absenteeism, turnover, accidents, and other related factors. Additional information includes

the estimated number of replacements and the time needed to train them to be productive.

A task analysis determines the content of the training program. It is based on the tasks/duties of the

job. This includes listing all the tasks and duties in the job, listing all steps needed to complete the tasks,

and determining the skills, knowledge, and abilities as well as the duties of the job. The actions include

things such as speak, compute, manipulate data, recall, and so on.

The personal analysis determines the specific skills, knowledge, and abilities required of the individuals.

In determining instructional objectives, the desired outcomes of the training program must be

determined. These outcomes should include acquisition of knowledge, skills or changing attitudes.

It is necessary to develop an environment where training and development efforts accomplish the

desired objectives. The organization needs to create a training environment that allows the trainees to

learn most effectively.

There is a need to evaluate the training program as well as the learning outcomes. This can be done by

using a pre-test and a post-test. Another is to use a comparison group. A comparison group would not

receive the training but would have the same qualifications as the trainees in terms of experience, past

training, and job level. Things that can be measured would include increased productivity, decreased

number of complaints, decreased costs and waste, and other indicators of improved performance. Data

would be used to determine the effectiveness of the training program.

It is necessary to determine the effectiveness of the training and whether the goals are being met.

There is the matter of training validity — whether the trainees learn during training. Another issue is

transfer validity — whether what has been learned can be transferred to enhanced performance in the

organization. Intraorganizational validity concerns whether the training of a one group within an

organization is consistent with that received by other groups. Interorganizational validity is whether the

training in one organization can be used successfully in another organization.

Benchmarking is comparing one’s services/products and practices against the recognized leaders in the

particular area identified for improvement. The use of measures in training activity, results, and training

efficiency can be developed using a benchmarking process.

Non-managerial employees can be trained in both on and off the job locations. On the job training can

be accomplished through a method by which the employees are given hands-on experience with

instruction from their supervisors or other trainers. There are drawbacks to this method since such

training may lack a well-structured training environment or there may be the absence of a well-defined

job performance criteria tied to the training.

Training is only as good as the trainers. Managers may have poor training skills. Organizations can

compensate by developing realistic goals and/or measures for each on the job training experience and

by having a plan for specific training for each trainee. A training plan needs to specify a time for

evaluation and feedback. It is essential that managers establish a non-threatening environment for

training so that learning can take place. Periodic evaluations must be completed at the end of training

to prevent regression.

Off the job training can include attendance at events such as conferences where employees can learn or

enhance skills. Formal classroom training is another off the job training method. Using a simulation

method, the individual works through a process prior to actually doing the job. There is also

programmed instruction that uses books, manuals, or computers.

Computer-based training includes computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and computer managed

instruction (CMI.) CMI is a system normally used with CAI that uses the computer to generate and score

tests to determine the level of training proficiency. Additional training tools include teleconferencing

and closed circuit conferences. Distance learning initiatives that have been developed in recent years

have the potential of providing additional learning opportunities through the Internet. This web-based

program is one such model that has already had a major impact on learning.

In a number of occupations, the use of apprenticeships is very effective. In this system, a worker gets

instruction in both on and off the job in the practical applications and the theoretical underpinnings of

the work. Cooperative training is another system that contains practical on-the-job experience with

formal educational classes. In internship programs, an organization and a school jointly sponsor an

opportunity to gain real life experience while allowing the individual to determine how well they will

perform in the work organization.

Job Analysis

There is a lot of information available about improving jobs and the workplace, but such data is not

always used properly or at all. Utilization of appropriate selection criteria is essential for hiring

individuals for a job at a proficiency level necessary to maintain cost-effectiveness. Accomplishing this is

not a random activity but involves efforts to provide an accurate tool to assist in the hiring process.

When properly done, it becomes a cost-saving process as individuals hired are appropriate for the

position and are able to meet or exceed performance needs.

Gathering information concerning a job is defined as a job analysis. In simple terms, the process

involves looking at a job and determining major tasks, activities, behaviors, or duties that must be

performed on the job. Once these factors are determined, there is a need to look at how frequently

these tasks are performed or how important the tasks may be. KSAs essential to the job also must be

identified. There also may be other characteristics that may be essential for a job such as personality

factors, physical traits, aptitudes, and mental traits. Data collection for job analyses can be through

observations, performing the job, interviews, critical incidents, diaries, background records, historical

data, or questionnaires.

For any job, there are various components that must be studied to accurately picture the positions.

These aspects include the function of the worker, the techniques used, work tools or aids used, the end

product or service, and specific worker characteristics. A job analysis investigates the positions in terms

of these aspects. Such analysis is then used to determine if characteristics of an applicant or worker

meet the needs of the position.

Organizations utilize different terminology. In this unit, the following definitions will be used. An

occupation is a group of jobs. These jobs can be found at more than one organization, but they have

common tasks, methodologies, products, or worker characteristics. A job is a group of positions at a

single employing unit that are the same with respects to significant tasks. There can be a single

individual or many people in a job. Organizations denote positions for individuals, a unique collection of

tasks that comprise the total work assignment for an individual. If there is any human effort to

accomplish a particular outcome, a task is created. A task is an element, or more than one element, that

is a logical step to get the work done. Tasks can be broken down into elements, the most basic part of a

task that can be analyzed. It was these elements that were studied by early theorists in the Scientific

Management field. In completing a job analysis, it is necessary to look at the job as it is at the time of

the analysis. It should not be how the job was or how it should be.

There are two separate dimensions of a job that need to be considered in the analysis process. The first

involves the work that is performed. This dimension looks at the actual activities that are performed. It

includes the work function, which is the way the worker must function to perform the job. Mental,

interpersonal, and physical actions are important aspects to be included in this part of the assessment.

It also includes how the work gets done. The last area includes basic materials that are processed,

products that are made, data, and services that are provided. The second dimension is worker

characteristics. This area consists of general educational development, special vocational preparation,

aptitudes, temperament, interest areas, and physical demand and environmental conditions. The

worker characteristic components parallel the skills, knowledge, and abilities aspect that many

organizations use in hiring and promoting individuals.

Job Design

Organizations have objectives to meet and establish jobs for that purpose. Job design is a product of a

job analysis. It is how the organization wants to improve performance through technological and human

considerations. Its purpose is to enhance organizational efficiency and employee satisfaction. A

scientific approach to this area is industrial engineering, a field of study that involved analysis of the

work and the establishing time standards. The industrial engineering staff has a responsibility to identify

and time the work cycle elements. In many cases, the increased efficiency can be obtained by

simplifying the work. There are other concerns that impact the design. The industrial engineer looks at

the tasks and not psychologically sound choices. The human factors that are integral parts of jobs are

not considered.

Jobs are also designed through human engineering. Human engineering is concerned with the worker’s

physical and mental capabilities. Since many jobs are changed with the increase of technology, it is

important to undertake an interdisciplinary approach to designing both the machines and the systems

that could be used in an effective and efficient manner by people. The intent is to fit the machinery to

the workers as opposed to the workers to the machines. This has led to the focus on ergonomic design

for workstations.

Employees can have high internal motivation and provide high quality work products. When this

happens, employees have high job satisfaction with their work and exhibit low absenteeism and

turnover rates.

Needs Assessment

Organizations should understand what their competencies are and where improvement is needed for

f

uture success. Organizational needs and individual career needs should be linked in such a way that

meeting an individual need advances the organization toward its strategic goals. Addressing the

organization’s needs must take into account any major strate

gic issues the organization may face in the

next two years. Accordingly, the organization must determine its most critical needs as well as the

major challenges that will be encountered during that period of time. In order for the organization to

address t

hose challenges, it must assess the critical skills, knowledge and abilities, and experience it will

need. Staffing levels for the future must also be determined so the organization can recruit the kind of

staff needed to meet the future challenges.

Indivi

duals need specific skills, knowledge’s, and abilities (SKAs) to be successful. How these specific

SKAs are identified and addressed becomes part of a needs assessment process. Utilizing the

competency model, information can be obtained through the use of

surveys, interviews, informal and

formal group discussions, and other tools. Any such process should involve a broad range of employees

representing different groups of workers. The goal is to identify the needs and problems of each group.

This will form the basis for developing processes to address problems that individuals and the

organization will face.

Performance Analysis

The purpose

of an appraisal system is to improve the performance of the individual as well as the

productivity for the organization. In increasing numbers, appraisal systems are using an individual’s

customer focus as a key performance indicator. Most organizations us

e an annual performance

appraisal system.

At times, it may be necessary to look at specific capacities or abilities that individuals must have to

succeed in a specific job. This is appraised as aptitude. These aptitudes may include color

discrimination, ey

e

hand

foot coordination, clerical knowledge, form perception, spatial aptitude,

numerical aptitude, verbal aptitude, and general learning ability. In a work situation, an analyst must

determine the acceptable performance level for each required aptitude.

The assignment of a specific

acceptable level is based on an analysis of the tasks of the job relative to the definitions and work

activities for each level. The scores are described in relation to the population: extremely high aptitude

Needs Assessment

Organizations should understand what their competencies are and where improvement is needed for

future success. Organizational needs and individual career needs should be linked in such a way that

meeting an individual need advances the organization toward its strategic goals. Addressing the

organization’s needs must take into account any major strategic issues the organization may face in the

next two years. Accordingly, the organization must determine its most critical needs as well as the

major challenges that will be encountered during that period of time. In order for the organization to

address those challenges, it must assess the critical skills, knowledge and abilities, and experience it will

need. Staffing levels for the future must also be determined so the organization can recruit the kind of

staff needed to meet the future challenges.

Individuals need specific skills, knowledge’s, and abilities (SKAs) to be successful. How these specific

SKAs are identified and addressed becomes part of a needs assessment process. Utilizing the

competency model, information can be obtained through the use of surveys, interviews, informal and

formal group discussions, and other tools. Any such process should involve a broad range of employees

representing different groups of workers. The goal is to identify the needs and problems of each group.

This will form the basis for developing processes to address problems that individuals and the

organization will face.

Performance Analysis

The purpose of an appraisal system is to improve the performance of the individual as well as the

productivity for the organization. In increasing numbers, appraisal systems are using an individual’s

customer focus as a key performance indicator. Most organizations use an annual performance

appraisal system.

At times, it may be necessary to look at specific capacities or abilities that individuals must have to

succeed in a specific job. This is appraised as aptitude. These aptitudes may include color

discrimination, eye-hand-foot coordination, clerical knowledge, form perception, spatial aptitude,

numerical aptitude, verbal aptitude, and general learning ability. In a work situation, an analyst must

determine the acceptable performance level for each required aptitude. The assignment of a specific

acceptable level is based on an analysis of the tasks of the job relative to the definitions and work

activities for each level. The scores are described in relation to the population: extremely high aptitude

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