trafficking upload file Child Labor Trafficking in West Africa: Causes, Consequences and Recommendations. Instructions: Write a 18-20 pages paper. APA

trafficking upload file Child Labor Trafficking in West Africa: Causes, Consequences and Recommendations.

Instructions: Write a 18-20 pages paper. APA

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Child Labor Trafficking in West Africa: Causes, Consequences and Recommendations.

Instructions: Write a 18-20 pages paper. APA style. PLEASE IT IS IMPORTANT TO FOLLOW MY OUTLINE AND USE MY BIBLIOGRAPHY WHEN WORKING ON THIS PAPER. ALSO I NEED YOU TO ADD MORE SOURCES TO MY BIBLIOGRAPHY PLEASE. LET ME KNOW IF YOU HAVE ANY ISSUES. ALSO BE VERY CONCISE IN YOUR WRITING AND USE DATA PLEASE WHEN IT IS POSSIBLE TOO.

Context: Child Labor is increasing in West Africa even though countries in the region have pledge to develop and implement measures to eradicate it. The purpose of my research is to look at current causes and consequences of child labor in West Africa today, explore what were the previous responses adopted and what policies ECOWAS could further implement to better tackle this long-time growing issue. The study will focus on Ghana and Ivory Coast because both countries have high child labor rates, and child labor in both countries is mainly observed in the cocoa industry.

Research Questions:

What are the main causes and consequences of child labor trafficking in West Africa today?

In what countries and sectors is it most serious in?

Why did previous policies failed to resolve the problem?

What new policies and measures should be taken to tackle the issue of child labor trafficking in West Africa?

1. Introduction

– Why is it increasing rate? (Poverty, covid, deforestation, etnic conflicts, terrorism.. etc)

– Industries most affected

– Number of countries affected by child labor etc.

2. Case Study Countries in West Africa: (chosen because they have some of the highest rates of child labor trafficking in the region)

– Ghana (child labor)

o Main industries using child labor

o Industry role in Ghana’s economy

– Ivory Coast (child labor)

o Main industries using child labor

o Industry role in Ivory Coast’s economy

– Key differences and similarities between child labor trafficking industries in these countries

3. Causes of child labor trafficking in West Africa

– Poverty

– Armed Conflict

– Corruption

– Environmental: overfishing and other environmental impacts.

4. Consequences of child labor trafficking in West Africa

– Physical injuries

– Mental health trauma

– Social consequences (No school, lack of living skills)

5. Current policies and measures implemented in West Africa

– Palermo Protocol

– ILO Convention No.182

– Harkin Engel Protocol

– ECOWAS plan of Action of 2002

Recommendations

Policy recommendations

Conclusion

Bibliography:

ECOWAS (2001). “ECOWAS Initial Plan of Action against Trafficking in Persons (2002-2003).” Executive Secretariat Dakar, December 2001. https://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/trafficking/Minimum_Plano_CEDEAO.pdf

Human Rights Watch “Ghana: Covid-19 Pandemic Fueling Child Labor.” October 19, 2021. https://www.hrw.org/news/2021/05/26/ghana-covid-19-pandemic-fueling-child-labor#.

Hounmenou, Charles. “Exploring Child Prostitution in a Major City in the West African Region.” Child Abuse & Neglect 59 (2016): 26–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2016.07.003.

Hounmenou, Charles. “Policy Response and Service Provision to Child Victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation in the West African Region.” Journal of Human Trafficking 4, no. 4 (2017): 336–61. https://doi.org/10.1080/23322705.2017.1356625.

Krauss, Alexander. “Understanding Child Labor in Ghana beyond Poverty—the Structure of the Economy, Social Norms, and No Returns to Rural Basic Education.” Policy Research Working Papers, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-6513

Niass, Dakar Saddikh. “Study on Trafficking in Persons in West Africa: an Analysis of the Legal and Political Framework for the Protection of Victims.” OHCHR. Accessed March 9, 2022. https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Trafficking/Dakar_Saddikh_Niass_en.pdf.

NORC. “Assessing Progress in Reducing Child Labor in Cocoa Production in Cocoa Growing Areas of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana,” NORC at the University of Chicago. October 2020. https://www.norc.org/PDFs/Cocoa%20Report/NORC%202020%20Cocoa%20Report_English.pdf

OECD. “Emerging good practice in combating the worst forms of child labor in West African cocoa growing communities”. SWAC/OECD, 2011. https://www.oecd.org/swac/publications/49069653.pdf

Odijie, Michael. “Why Does Child Slavery Persist in West Africa’s Cocoa Production?” Africa at LSE, June 11, 2021. https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2021/06/02/why-does-child-slavery-persist-west-africa-cote-divoire-cocoa-chocolate-production/.

The Economist. “The Number of Child Labourers Has Increased for the First Time in 20 Years.” The Economist Newspaper, August 23, 2021. https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2021/08/23/the-number-of-child-labourers-has-increased-for-the-first-time-in-20-years.

UNICEF. (2002). “Child Trafficking in West Africa – Policy Responses.” UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Innocenti Insight. https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/insight7.pdf

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. “Human trafficking in West Africa: three out of four victims are children says UNODC report.” Accessed February 21, 2022. https://www.unodc.org/nigeria/en/human-trafficking-in-west-africa_-three-out-of-four-victims-are-children-says-unodc-report.html.

U.S. Department of Labor. “2020 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor: Côte d’Ivoire.” Accessed February 21, 2022. https://www.dol.gov/sites/dolgov/files/ILAB/child_labor_reports/tda2020/Cote-d-lvoire.pdf.

U.S. Department of Labor. “2020 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor: Ghana.” Accessed March13, 2022. https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/resources/reports/child-labor/ghana

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